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Johannes Mohrmann, Christopher S. Bretherton, Isabel L. McCoy, Jeremy McGibbon, Robert Wood, Virendra Ghate, Bruce Albrecht, Mampi Sarkar, Paquita Zuidema, and Rabindra Palikonda

processes and depends on the cloud regime, so it is a major source of uncertainty in modeling anthropogenic aerosol effects on climate. Process modeling studies based on LES have identified two competing mechanisms, working through entrainment and precipitation, for liquid-phase MBL cloud lifetime effects. Ackerman et al. (2004) , Jiang et al. (2006) , Xue and Feingold (2006) , Bretherton et al. (2007) , Wood (2007) and others showed that higher N d , through its impact on cloud droplet size

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Kuan-Ting O, Robert Wood, and Christopher S. Bretherton

% confidence interval. Figure 12 shows the comparison of Eq. (3) with the values calculated by SCE, indicating that the bulk parameterization of Eq. (3) agrees fairly well with the SCE (correlation coefficient of 0.84). It should be noted that most of the bulk microphysics models divide condensate into cloud and rain and calculate the loss of in terms of the sum of autoconversion and accretion processes. The derived droplet loss rate from SCE [Eq. (2) ] combines both of these effects and describes

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Robert Wood, Kuan-Ting O, Christopher S. Bretherton, Johannes Mohrmann, Bruce. A. Albrecht, Paquita Zuidema, Virendra Ghate, Chris Schwartz, Ed Eloranta, Susanne Glienke, Raymond A. Shaw, Jacob Fugal, and Patrick Minnis

models have the appropriate albedo susceptibility given the tendency for large-scale models to produce an insufficient fraction of optically thin clouds. That said, the albedo susceptibility defined by Platnick and Twomey (1994) does not deal with the extent to which N d can be perturbed by increases in anthropogenic aerosol emissions. For MBL clouds over the remote oceans, the pathways by which N d can be increased are either via increased marine shipping emissions (surface sources) or by the

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