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  • Anthropogenic effects x
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Steven J. Phipps, Helen V. McGregor, Joëlle Gergis, Ailie J. E. Gallant, Raphael Neukom, Samantha Stevenson, Duncan Ackerley, Josephine R. Brown, Matt J. Fischer, and Tas D. van Ommen

, other forcings have become increasingly important with a detectable anthropogenic influence on the twentieth-century climate ( Hegerl et al. 2007b ). The past 1500 years therefore provide a valuable opportunity to study the response of the global climate to external forcings. Significant changes have taken place within the climate system over this period, and proxy data that record these changes cover a wide geographical area and have high temporal resolution (e.g., Mann et al. 2008 ). Natural and

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Tessa R. Vance, Tas D. van Ommen, Mark A. J. Curran, Chris T. Plummer, and Andrew D. Moy

anthropogenic climate change or natural variability, as instrumental records for ENSO cover at most 150 yr. In the Australian region, declines in rainfall have been observed in recent decades in southwest Western Australia, southeastern Australia, and parts of the eastern seaboard (e.g., Cai and Cowan 2006 ; Nicholls 2009 ; Cai et al. 2010 ; Gergis et al. 2011 ). It is also difficult to assess from short (100 yr) Australian rainfall records whether these declines, particularly in the ENSO

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Michelle Ho, Danielle C. Verdon-Kidd, Anthony S. Kiem, and Russell N. Drysdale

( Pook et al. 2006 ; Meneghini et al. 2007 ) as well as IOD effects in winter and spring ( Ashok et al. 2003 ; Verdon and Franks 2005 ; Risbey et al. 2009 ). 3. Methods a. Assessing catchment homogeneity The homogeneity of rainfall within the selected MDB subcatchments was investigated to determine whether remote paleoclimate records (i.e., those obtained from sites situated beyond the basin’s margin) may be used to reconstruct rainfall at a subcatchment scale, or whether location

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