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T. Scott Rupp, Xi Chen, Mark Olson, and A. David McGuire

the effects of anthropogenic climate warming will occur first and most dramatically at high latitudes ( Houghton 2001 ; ACIA 2005 ). Surface air temperatures measured across high-latitude sites of western North America show an increase of approximately 0.3°C decade −1 over the past century ( Keyser et al. 2000 ) and show that current temperatures are the highest experienced in the last 400 yr ( Jacoby and D’Arrigo 1995 ; Jacoby et al. 1996 ; Overpeck et al. 1997 ). Precipitation has increased

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J. S. Kimball, M. Zhao, A. D. McGuire, F. A. Heinsch, J. Clein, M. Calef, W. M. Jolly, S. Kang, S. E. Euskirchen, K. C. McDonald, and S. W. Running

remote sensing records indicate advances in the onset of vegetation greening and increasing productivity during much of the 1980s and 1990s ( Myneni et al. 1997a ; Nemani et al. 2003 ), followed by a recent widespread decline in photosynthetic activity for much of the region ( Goetz et al. 2005 ). However, the validity of these trends has been questioned because of the coarse spatial and temporal compositing of the data required to mitigate cloud cover and atmospheric aerosol effects, problems with

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