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Richard Harding, Martin Best, Eleanor Blyth, Stefan Hagemann, Pavel Kabat, Lena M. Tallaksen, Tanya Warnaars, David Wiberg, Graham P. Weedon, Henny van Lanen, Fulco Ludwig, and Ingjerd Haddeland

). There is already evidence that rainfall, runoff, and evaporation have increased, and will continue to do so ( Wentz et al. 2007 ; Huntington 2006 ). However, rising CO 2 concentrations may also reduce evaporation because of stomatal closing under elevated CO 2 concentrations. Superimposed on the effects of climate change will be the other impacts of human activities, such as land cover change and exploitation of water resources. In the short term at least, these latter influences will have an

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Manuel Punzet, Frank Voß, Anja Voß, Ellen Kynast, and Ilona Bärlund

. 2009 ; A. Voß et al. 2012 ) has been developed. The aim of the WorldQual model is to determine chemical fluxes in different pathways that will allow a combination of water quantity with water quality analyses. In particular, effects of changed climate and anthropogenic conditions can be analyzed. The effect of climate change on transport and transformations of substances can be manifold; for example, changes in precipitation and air temperature can affect the hydrological cycle, or changed runoff

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Ingjerd Haddeland, Douglas B. Clark, Wietse Franssen, Fulco Ludwig, Frank Voß, Nigel W. Arnell, Nathalie Bertrand, Martin Best, Sonja Folwell, Dieter Gerten, Sandra Gomes, Simon N. Gosling, Stefan Hagemann, Naota Hanasaki, Richard Harding, Jens Heinke, Pavel Kabat, Sujan Koirala, Taikan Oki, Jan Polcher, Tobias Stacke, Pedro Viterbo, Graham P. Weedon, and Pat Yeh

into account anthropogenic impacts such as water withdrawals and dams. Hence, WaterMIP provides an opportunity to compare results of LSMs and GHMs, focusing on differences between the two model strategies, while additionally investigating the effects of anthropogenic impacts on the global terrestrial water balance. Estimates of water availability and stress, as well as the uncertainties thereof, will also be compared for both current and future conditions. Using a range of model simulations, the

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Christel Prudhomme, Simon Parry, Jamie Hannaford, Douglas B. Clark, Stefan Hagemann, and Frank Voss

, our main assumption is that runoff simulations at 0.5° are generally reasonable. The simulations considered “naturalized” conditions when direct anthropogenic effects such as dams and water abstraction were not included in the models. This is consistent with the use of observations from undisturbed catchments. For comparison with the observed data, total runoff (the sum of surface and subsurface flows) was used as reference data to generate simulated RDI and RFI daily time series. Runoff, rather

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Lukas Gudmundsson, Lena M. Tallaksen, Kerstin Stahl, Douglas B. Clark, Egon Dumont, Stefan Hagemann, Nathalie Bertrand, Dieter Gerten, Jens Heinke, Naota Hanasaki, Frank Voss, and Sujan Koirala

bias corrected and shortwave radiation adjusted according to cloud cover and aerosol loading using the CRU data ( Mitchell and Jones 2005 ; New et al. 1999 , 2000 ). Precipitation is bias corrected using the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre full product (GPCCv4) data ( Rudolf and Schneider 2005 ; Schneider et al. 2010 ; Fuchs 2009 ) and undercatch corrected ( Adam and Lettenmaier 2003 ). The simulations assumed “naturalized” conditions, which means that direct anthropogenic effects such

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Wai Kwok Wong, Stein Beldring, Torill Engen-Skaugen, Ingjerd Haddeland, and Hege Hisdal

during the twenty-first century. Hence, the results presented here should be valid, although including the effects of CO 2 on vegetation in the model simulations might yield slightly different results. The effects of CO 2 on vegetation in Norway are definitely interesting topics for further research. The HBV model calculates potential evapotranspiration using a temperature index approach. This is a common parameterization procedure adopted in hydrological models (e.g., Xu and Singh 2001 ), but it

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Pete Falloon, Richard Betts, Andrew Wiltshire, Rutger Dankers, Camilla Mathison, Doug McNeall, Paul Bates, and Mark Trigg

Siebert 2002 ; Wisser et al. 2010 ) and this is concentrated mainly in semiarid and arid climate zones. The anthropogenic influence on flows in the Congo is, however, fairly small ( Döll et al. 2009 ). For the Nile and Niger, water lost to dry land aquifers is an important process not commonly represented in global-scale hydrological models, while both irrigation and evaporation loss from Lake Nasser explain key water losses for the Nile. However, TRIP has not been extensively validated when driven

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Stefan Hagemann, Cui Chen, Jan O. Haerter, Jens Heinke, Dieter Gerten, and Claudio Piani

.1 for the ocean ( Madec et al. 1998 ), and GELATO 2 for sea ice ( Salas-Mélia 2002 ). The distributions of marine, desert, urban aerosols, and sulfate aerosols were specified, whereas for aerosols only the direct effect of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols was taken into account. 3) IPSL The L’Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace Coupled Model, version 4 (IPSL CM4; hereafter simply IPSL) includes the submodels LMDZ-4 for the atmosphere ( Hourdin et al. 2006 ), ORCA for the ocean (based on the OPA model

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Philippe Lucas-Picher, Jens H. Christensen, Fahad Saeed, Pankaj Kumar, Shakeel Asharaf, Bodo Ahrens, Andrew J. Wiltshire, Daniela Jacob, and Stefan Hagemann

under enhanced greenhouse gas conditions in a global time-slice experiment . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 29 , 1118 , doi:10.1029/2001GL013808 . May, W. , 2003 : The Indian summer monsoon and its sensitivity to the mean SSTs: Simulations with the ECHAM4 AGCM at T106 horizontal resolution . J. Meteor. Soc. Japan , 81 , 57 – 83 , doi:10.2151/jmsj.81.57 . Meehl, G. A. , Arblaster J. M. , and Collins W. D. , 2008 : Effects of black carbon aerosols on the Indian monsoon . J. Climate , 21

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