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D. Roemmich, J. Gilson, R. Davis, P. Sutton, S. Wijffels, and S. Riser

high latitudes, where strengthened westerlies resulted in increased northward Ekman transport, divergence of the surface transport near Antarctica, and acceleration of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. At middle latitudes around 40°S they noted increases in Ekman convergence, SST, and westward flow as effects of an increased SAM. Our description will correspond to this midlatitude part of their domain, and more specifically, in the South Pacific sector. The present study utilizes a combination of

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Reiner Schlitzer

1. Introduction The formation of dense waters at high latitudes and the subsequent sinking and spreading of the water in the abyssal ocean are integral parts of the global ocean’s overturning circulation. This overturning circulation has profound effects on the heat budget of the earth and impacts the regional and global climate. Apart from heat, the sinking waters also carry dissolved constituents, such as oxygen, nutrients, and CO 2 , and the strength of the overturning circulation ultimately

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A. Köhl, D. Stammer, and B. Cornuelle

1992–2002. A comparison of the changes in SSH with those in temperature and salinity reveals that over the Pacific and North Atlantic the steric change is dominated by temperature but reduced by salinity effects whereas the opposite is true for the South Atlantic and the southern part of the Indian Ocean. Overall, partial cancellation between the temperature and salinity effects is observed in most areas, which might be explained by the conclusion that much of the exchange takes place on isopycnals

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