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Wanshu Nie, Benjamin F. Zaitchik, Guangheng Ni, and Ting Sun

. This points to the need for high-resolution modeling studies that include dynamic and spatial differentiable representation of AH pattern and that can be applied in a range of urban environments. Here, to better understand the mechanism of AH impact on urban rainfall, we apply WRF to simulate summertime rainfall events in Beijing. Anthropogenic heat is simulated using the Building Effects Parameterization and Building Energy Model (BEP-BEM), which includes multilayer building

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Meixia Lv, Zhuguo Ma, and Naiming Yuan

1. Introduction Under the influences of climate change and intensive anthropogenic activities, the terrestrial water cycle has changed markedly, especially in dry regions with large populations ( Ahmed et al. 2014 ; Feng et al. 2018 ; Rodell et al. 2018 ; Scanlon et al. 2018 ). Fortunately, the terrestrial water storage (TWS) variation products from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites ( Tapley et al. 2004 ), which represent changes related to both climate

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Feng Ma, Lifeng Luo, Aizhong Ye, and Qingyun Duan

meteorology to hydrology has significant impacts on water resources management, which depends strongly on both climate and catchment characteristics ( Van Loon and Van Lanen 2012 ). Therefore, hydrological drought features may display huge distinctions in different regions of the world, in spite of similar meteorological drought characteristics (e.g., number of events, duration, and severity; Van Loon et al. 2014 ). To better manage water resources and reduce the effects of droughts, understanding

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Ipshita Majhi and Daqing Yang

( McClelland et al. 2004 ). Peterson et al. (2002) suggested that the transport of moisture from the lower to higher latitudes might be responsible for river runoff increases. Berezovskaya et al. (2004) recently reported inconsistency in yearly precipitation and runoff trends for the large Siberian rivers. A better understanding of the hydroclimate system is critical to understand and explain the observed hydrologic changes. In addition to climate change, anthropogenic activities such as reservoir

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Daisuke Nohara, Akio Kitoh, Masahiro Hosaka, and Taikan Oki

the Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI), as listed in Table 1 . Variables analyzed include the monthly mean precipitation, evaporation, and runoff of the 20C3M and SRES A1B experiments. Evaporation is obtained by calculating the latent heat flux divided by the latent heat of vaporization by ignoring fusion and sublimation. The 20C3M experiment has been simulated by AOGCM with natural (e.g., volcanoes and solar) and anthropogenic (e.g., greenhouse gases, ozone, and

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Guoyong Leng and Qiuhong Tang

our ability to adapt to anthropogenic climate change (e.g., Döll 2002 ; Fischer et al. 2007 ; Elgaali et al. 2007 ; Yano et al. 2007 ; Rodríguez Díaz et al. 2007 ; Pfister et al. 2011 ; Konzmann et al. 2013 ). Overall, an increase in long-term mean IWD was estimated in a warming climate in most of these studies because of enhanced evaporative demand. For example, Döll (2002) predicted an increase of global IWD by ~5% by the 2020s and by ~10% by the 2070s based on the year 1995 irrigated

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Tian Zhou, Nathalie Voisin, Guoyong Leng, Maoyi Huang, and Ian Kraucunas

, and T. K. Tesfa , 2017 : Effects of spatially distributed sectoral water management on the redistribution of water resources in an integrated water model . Water Resour. Res. , 53 , 4253 – 4270 , . 10.1002/2016WR019767 Von Storch , H. , and F. W. Zwiers , 1999 : Statistical Analysis in Climate Research . Cambridge University Press, 496 pp. 10.1007/978-3-662-03744-7_2 Vörösmarty , C. J. , and D. L. Sahagian , 2000 : Anthropogenic disturbance of

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E. M. C. Demaria, E. P. Maurer, J. Sheffield, E. Bustos, D. Poblete, S. Vicuña, and F. Meza

where the underlying density of available station observations is low, the station locations are inadequate to represent complex topography, or where the gridded spatial resolution is too large for the region being studied. Central Chile is an especially challenging environment for characterizing climate and hydrology since the terrain exhibits dramatic elevation changes over short distances, and the orographic effects produce high spatial heterogeneity in precipitation. In general, the observation

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Abel T. Woldemichael, Faisal Hossain, and Roger Pielke Sr.

LULC scenarios, to address the important question regarding dams and their impoundments: How sensitive are the hydroclimatology and terrain features of a region in modulating the postdam response of climate feedbacks to EP? Findings of this study allowed a comparison with the findings reported in Woldemichael et al. (2012) for a contrasting hydroclimate and topography. The study first investigated the individual effects of the anthropogenic changes on extreme precipitation for the selected study

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James M. Gilbert, Reed M. Maxwell, and David J. Gochis

suggests that anthropogenic impacts to groundwater systems may extend beyond terrestrial hydrology. Extensive groundwater extraction to support agriculture, industry, and domestic use has produced regions of considerable aquifer depletion around the world ( Döll et al. 2012 ; Scanlon et al. 2012 ; Wada et al. 2010 ). In particular, groundwater extraction to support irrigation has been linked with significant declines in important regional aquifer systems ( Wada et al. 2012 ), with California

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