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Christopher Potter, Pusheng Zhang, Steven Klooster, Vanessa Genovese, Shashi Shekhar, and Vipin Kumar

1. Introduction Large rivers integrate the constituents and characteristics of the landscape through which they flow. Consequently, river discharge represents a valuable historical record of hydrologic patterns over complex drainage basins, and therefore has a particularly important role to play in understanding climatic and anthropogenic effects on terrestrial ecosystems at continental and global scales ( Vörösmarty and Sahagian, 2000 ). River flow has important implications for physics in the

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Christopher Small

( Chameides et al., 1994 ). Urban heat island effects are also believed to be responsible for inducing atmospheric convergence sufficient enough to influence thunderstorm formation and movements observed near large urban areas ( Bornstein and LeRoy, 1990 ; Bornstein and Lin, 2000 ). Regional climate models also indicate a strong sensitivity to land-cover variations at scales of kilometers ( Pielke et al., 2002 ; Roy and Avissar, 2000 ; Li and Avissar, 1994 ), which suggests that urban land

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Ademola K. Braimoh and Paul L. G. Vlek

partition the effects of quantity and location errors in the model at each scale ( Pontius, 2000 ). These were kappa for location ( κ loc ) and kappa for quantity ( κ q ). 4. Results and discussion 4.1. Relationships at the basic Landsat TM scale Logistic regression results for the two periods are presented in Table 2 . For the basic 30-m Landsat TM resolution (scale 1), the likelihood of conversion to cropland increased by more than 4 times in the zone where the rainfall was equal to or more than 100

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