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John Austin, Larry W. Horowitz, M. Daniel Schwarzkopf, R. John Wilson, and Hiram Levy II

overall recommendation of the 2010 Stratosphere–Troposphere Processes and Their Role in Climate (SPARC) Chemistry–Climate Model Validation (CCMVal) report ( SPARC CCMVal 2010 ). In this paper, the stratospheric temperature results and ozone distributions from the model are investigated to determine the likely effects of natural and anthropogenic processes on the historical stratosphere (1860–2005), including the effects of volcanoes and human produced halocarbons. 2. Description of model and

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Jean-Christophe Golaz, Marc Salzmann, Leo J. Donner, Larry W. Horowitz, Yi Ming, and Ming Zhao

the total anthropogenic impact of greenhouse gases, and aerosol direct and indirect effects between PD and PI conditions: where F PD and F PI are PD and PI net global mean top-of-the-atmosphere radiation fluxes (positive downward). Total anthropogenic RFP incorporates the effects of fast atmospheric responses to greenhouse gases and aerosols but not slower responses because of changes in sea surface temperatures. Because fast processes are considered, both the first indirect effect (“cloud

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Leo J. Donner, Bruce L. Wyman, Richard S. Hemler, Larry W. Horowitz, Yi Ming, Ming Zhao, Jean-Christophe Golaz, Paul Ginoux, S.-J. Lin, M. Daniel Schwarzkopf, John Austin, Ghassan Alaka, William F. Cooke, Thomas L. Delworth, Stuart M. Freidenreich, C. T. Gordon, Stephen M. Griffies, Isaac M. Held, William J. Hurlin, Stephen A. Klein, Thomas R. Knutson, Amy R. Langenhorst, Hyun-Chul Lee, Yanluan Lin, Brian I. Magi, Sergey L. Malyshev, P. C. D. Milly, Vaishali Naik, Mary J. Nath, Robert Pincus, Jeffrey J. Ploshay, V. Ramaswamy, Charles J. Seman, Elena Shevliakova, Joseph J. Sirutis, William F. Stern, Ronald J. Stouffer, R. John Wilson, Michael Winton, Andrew T. Wittenberg, and Fanrong Zeng

and energy balances. Part I: The land dynamics (LaD) model . J. Hydrometeor. , 3 , 283 – 299 . Ming , Y. , and L. M. Russell , 2004 : Organic aerosol effects on fog droplet spectra . J. Geophys. Res. , 109 , D10206 , doi:10.1029/2003JD004427 . Ming , Y. , V. Ramaswamy , P. A. Ginoux , and L. W. Horowitz , 2005 : Direct radiative forcing of anthropogenic organic aerosols . J. Geophys. Res. , 110 , D20208 , doi:10.1029/2004JD005573 . Ming , Y. , V. Ramaswamy , L. J

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