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Xiangzhou Song and Lisan Yu

positive SHF anomalies in the subpolar region sandwiched with negative SHF anomalies in the north and south suggests an association with the North Atlantic Oscillation [(NAO), also referred to as the Arctic Oscillation (AO) or Northern Hemisphere annular mode (NAM)] ( Lorenz 1950 ; Hurrell 1995 ; Thompson and Wallace 1998 , 2000a ). The leading global SHF mode during the austral winter features a wavelike pattern at high southern latitudes, exhibiting a connection to the Southern Hemisphere annular

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Richard I. Cullather and Michael G. Bosilovich

– 242 . Thompson , D. W. J. , and J. M. Wallace , 1998 : The Arctic Oscillation signature in the wintertime geopotential height and temperature fields . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 25 , 1297 – 1300 . Thorne , P. W. , 2008 : Arctic tropospheric warming amplification? Nature , 455 , E1 – E2 . Tietäväinen , H. , and T. Vihma , 2008 : Atmospheric moisture budget over Antarctica and the Southern Ocean based on the ERA-40 reanalysis . Int. J. Climatol. , 28 , 1977 – 1995 . Trenberth

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Matthew R. Mazloff

circumpolar current to Southern Hemisphere winds in coarse-resolution ocean models . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 30 , 2013 – 2034 . Gong , D. , and S. Wang , 1999 : Definition of Antarctic Oscillation index . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 26 , 459 – 462 . Hallberg , R. , and A. Gnanadesikan , 2006 : The role of eddies in determining the structure and response of the wind-driven southern hemisphere overturning: Results from the Modeling Eddies in the Southern Ocean (MESO) project . J. Phys. Oceanogr

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