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Monica Ionita, Gerrit Lohmann, Norel Rimbu, and Silvia Chelcea

, 2943 – 2962 . Déry, S. J. , and Wood E. F. , 2004 : Teleconnection between the Arctic Oscillation and Hudson Bay river discharge . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 31 , L18205 , doi:10.1029/2004GL020729 . Desser, C. , and Blackmon M. L. , 1993 : Surface climate variations over the North Atlantic Ocean during winter: 1900–89 . J. Climate , 6 , 1743 – 1753 . Dettinger, M. D. , and Diaz H. F. , 2000 : Global characteristics of streamflow seasonality . J. Hydrometeor. , 1 , 289 – 310

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Hamish D. Pritchard, Daniel Farinotti, and Steven Colwell

in the lowland Finnish Arctic at 180-m altitude; 2) Silsersee, a 4.12-km 2 Swiss alpine valley lake at 1800-m altitude; and 3) Tomasee, a 0.025-km 2 , high-alpine cirque lake at 2345-m altitude, and the source of the River Rhine ( Fig. 1 ). In each case, we deployed commercially available, high-precision water-pressure sensors (nominal precision 0.1% full scale) on the lake bed, either in advance of the winter freeze-up or via a hole drilled through the winter ice cover. Fig . 1. Locations of

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Jay H. Lawrimore, David Wuertz, Anna Wilson, Scott Stevens, Matthew Menne, Bryant Korzeniewski, Michael A. Palecki, Ronald D. Leeper, and Thomas Trunk

(0.03 in.)] in gauge depth that occur in the absence of precipitation are removed by locating offsetting negative and positive oscillations. c. Removal of diurnal fluctuations Diurnal fluctuations of bucket values unrelated to precipitation are present in almost all F&P gauges with varying degrees of amplitude depending on maintenance procedures and climate zone. We have observed that diurnal fluctuations are typically manifested by a slow increase in reported gauge depth, apparently in response

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Yanbo Nie and Jianqi Sun

al. 2011 ), and atmospheric teleconnections, such as the Arctic Oscillation (AO) ( Jiang and Li 2011 ; Huang et al. 2012 ; Yang et al. 2012 ; Zhang et al. 2014 ), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) ( Xu et al. 2012 ; Feng et al. 2014 ; Song et al. 2014 ; Zhang et al. 2014 ), and Silk Road pattern ( Dong et al. 2018 , 2019 ). Generally, rain gauges provide the most reliable measurements to observe precipitation, but this may not be the case in SWC because the spatial representativeness of

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Natalie Teale and David A. Robinson

water vapor fluxes to precipitation to quantify each flux’s contribution to the annual regional precipitation. Additionally, time series analyses of these fluxes are being conducted to determine if and, if so, how these flux patterns have changed over the past century. Also to be examined are possible changes in the seasonality and phase of precipitation produced by each of the fluxes, as well as relationships between the North Atlantic Oscillation, the Pacific North American pattern, and other

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M. Alves, D. F. Nadeau, B. Music, F. Anctil, and A. Parajuli

the topsoil layer (within ~0.15 m deep from the skin soil surface). Blue, green, and red lines correspond to CTL, RNL, and RNL-ObsP simulations, respectively. The soil moisture simulations at ON-OMW ( Fig. 10c ) show reasonable agreement with observations for only some parts of the snow accumulation period (DJFM) and late snowmelt period (May). For the most part, however, CLASS results greatly disagree with observations, showing many oscillations (peaks) that are not shown by the measurements. Its

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Yafang Zhong, Jason A. Otkin, Martha C. Anderson, and Christopher Hain

.1175/1520-0493(2001)129<0569:CAALSH>2.0.CO;2 Crow , W. T. , R. Dongryeol , and J. S. Famiglietti , 2005 : Upscaling of field-scale soil moisture measurements using distributed land surface modeling . Adv. Water Resour. , 28 , 1 – 14 , . 10.1016/j.advwatres.2004.10.004 Czaja , A. , and C. Frankignoul , 2002 : Observed impact of Atlantic SST anomalies on the North Atlantic Oscillation . J. Climate , 15 , 606 – 623 ,

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Scott Lee Sellars, Xiaogang Gao, and Soroosh Sorooshian

are well-known climate states [e.g., the Arctic Oscillation (AO), Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO), and El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO)] that often impact precipitation and temperature over the western United States ( Redmond and Koch 1991 ; Dracup and Kahya 1994 ; Cayan et al. 1999 ; Barlow et al. 2001 ; Cook et al. 2004 , 2007 ). Research has shown similarities in both the physical precipitation features (e.g., area averages) and the particular climate phenomena that influence the

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David Barriopedro, Célia M. Gouveia, Ricardo M. Trigo, and Lin Wang

), although such relationship is nonstationary ( Kumar et al. 1999 ; R. Wu and B. Wang 2002 ). Other reported factors affecting seasonal precipitation in China are the Arctic Oscillation/North Atlantic Oscillation (AO/NAO; Gong and Wang 2003 ; Sung et al. 2006 ), the stationary planetary waves ( Chen et al. 2005 ), the Antarctic Oscillation (AAO; Nan and Li 2003 ), dynamic and thermal effects of the Tibetan Plateau ( Wu and Zhang 1998 ; Hsu and Liu 2003 ), and the Eurasian snow cover ( Zhang et al

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Michael J. DeFlorio, Duane E. Waliser, Bin Guan, David A. Lavers, F. Martin Ralph, and Frédéric Vitart

or not additional forecast skill and utility can be gained during certain phases of climate mode variability. The relationship between AR forecast utility and climate variations is examined here using the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Arctic Oscillation (AO), and the Pacific–North America (PNA) teleconnection pattern. These climate variations are a focus because AR frequency is sensitive to the phase of each of these modes over particular regions around the globe ( GW2015 ). In

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