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Ning Zeng and J. David Neelin

study of land–atmosphere interaction. Eltahir and Bras (1993) developed a simple model to interpret some early Amazon deforestation GCM results, highlighting the competing feedback effects of a warmer surface and less precipitation, both of which can result from a reduction in evaporation. In an intermediate-level model and subsequent analysis, Zeng et al. (1996) and Zeng (1998) showed that the deforestation response is largely determined by a three-way balance among large-scale adiabatic

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E. M. Fischer, S. I. Seneviratne, P. L. Vidale, D. Lüthi, and C. Schär

attributed to past human influence on the climate system. Several model studies suggest that events such as the 2003 summer heat wave will become more frequent, more intense, and longer lasting in the future ( S04 ; Beniston 2004 ; Meehl and Tebaldi 2004 ; Vidale et al. 2007 ). Several studies have suggested that the projected changes in summer climate strongly rely on soil moisture–atmosphere interactions ( Seneviratne et al. 2006b ; Rowell 2005 ; Rowell and Jones 2006 ; Vidale et al. 2007 ). Heat

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Haishan Chen, Bo Yu, Botao Zhou, Wanxin Zhang, and Jie Zhang

radiation effects and the feedback of land–atmosphere interaction on the warm amplification over arid/semiarid regions. In addition, various studies have explored the possible reasons for the abnormal warming of the Eurasian continent from aspects of changes in cloud amount ( Dai et al. 1997 , 1999 ; Tang and Leng 2012 ; Tang et al. 2012 ) and precipitation ( Dai et al. 1997 , 1999 ; Trenberth and Shea 2005 ). Dai et al. (1997 , 1999) pointed out that increased cloud amount can reduce solar

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Dara Entekhabi, Ignacio Rodriguez-Iturbe, and Rafael L. Bras

multiplicative-noise stochastic differential equation for the waterbalance dynamics of continental-type climates that includes land surface-atmosphere interaction.The solution to this differential equation exhibits a bimodal probability distribution function for soil moistureand precipitation. Extended periods of anomalous dry conditions (drought) or alternatively wet conditions(pluvial), with abrupt transitions between them, are present in the model. The statistics of persistent anomalousconditions are

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Paul A. Dirmeyer, Yan Jin, Bohar Singh, and Xiaoqin Yan

vary from year to year ( Guo and Dirmeyer 2013 ) depending on the pattern of the climatology of soil moisture and the fluctuation of its anomalies. These results raise questions. Have the interactions between land and atmosphere on intraseasonal to interannual time scales changed since preindustrial times when atmospheric composition, aerosol loading, and global vegetation cover were different? More importantly, will land–atmosphere interactions change in the future? Phase 5 of the Coupled Model

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Toshihisa Matsui, Venkataraman Lakshmi, and Eric E. Small

-scale atmospheric circulation pattern; therefore, it may be difficult to find statistically significant relationships using only observed data ( Matsui et al. 2003 ). A limited-area regional climate model (RCM) can be used to physically study the importance of complex landatmosphere interactions ( Giorgi and Mearns 1999 ). The climate of the NAMS region is unique: land surface conditions, sea breezes, orographic lifting, and large-scale monsoon circulation may affect the rainfall pattern ( Adams and Comrie

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Gordon B. Bonan, David Pollard, and Starley L. Thompson

_~af area index was the most important parameter; stomatal resistances were onlyimportant on wet soils. Interactions among parameters increased the nonlinearity of land-atmOsphere energyexchange. When considered separately, six to ten values of each parameter greafiy reduced the deviation betweenthe two flux estimates. However, this approach became cumbersome when all four parameters varied independently. These analyses suggest that the debate over how to best parameterize the nonlinear effects of

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L. R. Vargas Zeppetello, Étienne Tétreault-Pinard, D. S. Battisti, and M. B. Baker

shown in Figs. 2 and 3 are due to errors in the model representations of the connection between surface turbulent energy fluxes and soil moisture. In this paper, we take a first step toward addressing this hypothesis with the aid of our “toy model” of land–atmosphere interaction on monthly time scales, developed in sections 2 and 3 . For more details on model development, see Tétreault-Pinard (2013) . The model quantitatively links the variance in 2-m air temperature T and soil moisture m

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Alfredo Ruiz-Barradas and Sumant Nigam

1. Introduction The U.S. Great Plains is a region of heightened atmosphere–land surface interaction from boreal spring to fall. Terrestrial water resources are recharged in winter/spring and expended in summer and fall (the growing seasons), with evapotranspiration being a key element of the seasonal regional atmospheric and terrestrial water cycles (e.g., Nigam and Ruiz-Barradas 2006 ). However, evapotranspiration has a modest role in nonseasonal hydroclimate variability over this region

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Estela A. Collini, Ernesto H. Berbery, Vicente R. Barros, and Matthew E. Pyle

3 discusses the background state and the control runs that are used as reference. Section 4 examines the overall effects of soil moisture changes on land–atmosphere interactions at the local scales. The impact of these changes in the low-level jet east of the Andes and the corresponding moisture flux convergence are addressed next in section 5 . Finally, a summary and the main conclusions are presented in section 6 . 2. Experimental design The experiments performed for this research were

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