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Ana M. B. Nunes and John O. Roads

precipitation during the night ( Nogués-Paegle and Berbery 2000 ). This lack of improvement was especially discouraging since regional models provide a means to investigate the influence of regional features on the atmospheric circulation by means of a better characterization of topography, coastal shape, land–sea ice distribution, contrasts in soil use, etc. While there are a number of research avenues that need to be explored to determine why current regional simulations are not able to substantially

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Ellen Jasinski, Douglas Morton, Ruth DeFries, Yosio Shimabukuro, Liana Anderson, and Matthew Hansen

the spatial distribution of cultivated land. Previous studies have demonstrated the impact of road access on land-use change ( Stone et al. 1991 ; Wilkie et al. 2000 ; Laurance et al. 2002 ; Alves 2002 ). How much land in Mato Grosso will ultimately be converted to mechanized agriculture depends on future economic, political, biophysical, and climatic conditions. However, current assessment of the likelihood of conversion to mechanized agriculture for different landscapes in Mato Grosso can

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Jeffrey T. Morisette, Louis Giglio, Ivan Csiszar, Alberto Setzer, Wilfrid Schroeder, Douglas Morton, and Christopher O. Justice

System) was created within IBAMA and started to use—in a semioperational way—satellite fire detection information coming from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) AVHRR data generated by INPE. In 1985 the first fire detections with AVHRR were made as part of the NASA–INPE Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE)-2A mission, resulting in the report of previously unknown biomass burning in the Amazon, with regional transport of emissions ( Andreae et al. 1988 ). In 1987 the first

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Tomas F. Domingues, Joseph A. Berry, Luiz A. Martinelli, Jean P. H. B. Ometto, and James R. Ehleringer

questions such as: Is the Amazon region currently behaving as a source or a sink for atmospheric carbon? And furthermore, how will such behavior change in the future? To build up the necessary knowledge needed to answer such questions, several studies evaluated measurements and models of carbon fluxes and stocks for a variety of primary forest sites in Amazonia. In summary, such studies involved measurements of carbon dioxide fluxes ( Wofsy et al. 1988 ; Fan et al. 1990 ; Grace et al. 1995 ; Malhi et

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Wilfrid Schroeder, Jeffrey T. Morisette, Ivan Csiszar, Louis Giglio, Douglas Morton, and Christopher O. Justice

brightness temperature and the 3.96- and 11.0- μ m brightness temperature difference depart substantially from that of the nonfire background. Additional specialized tests are used to eliminate false detections caused by sun glint, desert boundaries, and errors in the water mask ( Giglio et al. 2003 ). The Terra and Aqua MODIS fire products used in this paper were created at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) within the MODIS Land Rapid Response System (information online at http

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Gregory P. Asner, David E. Knapp, Amanda N. Cooper, Mercedes M. C. Bustamante, and Lydia P. Olander

) Experiment in the Amazônia program ( Keller et al. 2004 ), as well as in many other conservation and policy development arenas. Currently available technologies for large-scale, high spatial resolution studies include synthetic aperture radar ( Saatchi et al. 2000 ) and Landsat optical remote sensing ( Asner 2001 ). Laser detection and ranging (lidar) is temporarily available from space via IceSat , but is limited by spatial sampling rather than contiguous coverage. Very high spatial resolution optical

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