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Rafał Wójcik, Konstantinos Andreadis, Marco Tedesco, Eric Wood, Tara Troy, and Dennis Lettenmeier

retrieval of atmospheric moisture in which the SWE problem is incidental. However, even where there is a motivation to update land surface variables, such as SWE, the assimilation of brightness temperatures ( T b ), rather than derived the SWE products, requires knowledge of snow physical properties because they affect the (surface) emissivity. National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) operational models currently use the Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM), which predicts TOA microwave

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Glen E. Liston, Daniel L. Birkenheuer, Christopher A. Hiemstra, Donald W. Cline, and Kelly Elder

-generation Pennsylvania State University–National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5) or the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model can also be used for a 4D variational application if lateral boundary conditions are not critical]. The LAPS analysis is a series of routines that then takes the local observations with other nationally disseminated data and modifies the background field to match those observations. In addition, quality control measures (buddy checking and weighting by measurement

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Jicheng Liu, Curtis E. Woodcock, Rae A. Melloh, Robert E. Davis, Ceretha McKenzie, and Thomas H. Painter

-length probability is 80% ± 5% of the true proportion of the ground surface for the footprint size of 0.4 m, which is the current case. The true proportion of ground surface for each stand in the Fool Creek ISA is estimated by dividing the percentage of ground returns in the lidar data by 0.8. The percentage of the ground returns is determined from histograms of the lidar data. The histogram of the “Sparse Stand” ( Fig. 9 ) suggests that the 1-m height is a good choice for the boundary between ground returns and

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Kelly Elder, Don Cline, Glen E. Liston, and Richard Armstrong

Michigan River, Illinois River, and Potter Creek ISAs. The Rabbit Ears MSA contained the Walton Creek, Spring Creek, and Buffalo Pass ISAs. Field measurements were divided into two main categories: transect and snow pit measurements. Transect data included snow depths and related measurements, as detailed below. Snow pits were excavated at fixed locations and related measurements were made, also detailed below. The field effort has produced an extensive legacy dataset that can be used to answer current

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Susan Frankenstein, Anne Sawyer, and Julie Koeberle

are a three-layer canopy and a one-layer lower vegetation (crops, shrubs, grasses) algorithm. The temperature of the lower vegetation layer is solved for using the energy balance equation discussed in section 3 , whereas the canopy profiles are calculated separately. Ten low vegetation and five canopy types are currently accommodated based on the Biosphere–Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) developed by Dickinson et al. (1986) . BATS was designed to be applied over an area composed of irregularly

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D. Marks, A. Winstral, G. Flerchinger, M. Reba, J. Pomeroy, T. Link, and K. Elder

-surface temperature inversion that will reduce turbulent mixing ( Male 1980 ). Uncertainty in the exchange coefficients is further complicated by the inequality of eddy diffusivities for latent and sensible energy and momentum, and low turbulence as a result of the extreme aerodynamic smoothness of snow surfaces ( Male and Granger 1979 ). Currently, the most direct way to measure turbulent transfer over snow is with EC techniques ( Kaimal and Finnigan 1994 ). Successful measurements of turbulent fluxes over snow

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