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Gemma T. Narisma and Andrew J. Pitman

longwave radiation scheme described by Chen and Cotton ( Chen and Cotton, 1983 ; Chen and Cotton, 1987 ). The model was initialized and driven by boundary conditions taken from a transitory simulation of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) Mark 2 atmosphere–ocean model ( Watterson and Dix, 2003 ). The CSIRO model has a spatial resolution of approximately 3.2° latitude and 5.6° longitude and includes nine vertical layers for the atmosphere. Climate simulations

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Christopher Small

agricultural regions are likely to remain under cultivation as large-scale mechanized cultivation replaces smaller-scale agricultural land use. The current spatial distribution of urban land use can also provide boundary conditions for future scenarios and projections of urban growth. Mapping present and future (projected) urban land-use distributions in geophysical parameter spaces could serve the dual purpose of 1) providing geophysical constraints for process models with physical parameters, and 2

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In-Young Yeo, Steven I. Gordon, and Jean-Michel Guldmann

hydrological impacts of land-use changes under such a scenario. This ad hoc scenario method is widely used to determine the best management plans or to prioritize environmentally sensitive areas for preservation. Another limitation of the current approach is related to the shortcomings of hydrological models. Although fully distributed physical models are available, runoff simulation modeling based on the SCS curve number method is the most widely used tool because of its simplicity and good accuracy A

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