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Lingsheng Meng, Wei Zhuang, Weiwei Zhang, Angela Ditri, and Xiao-Hai Yan

) found decadal sea level and wind stress changes around 2000 in the Indo-Pacific region. While the multidecadal regional sea level shifts in the Pacific during 1958–2008 were found by Moon et el. (2013) , Hamlington et al. (2016) uncovered an ongoing shift in Pacific Ocean sea level over the past few years. Han et al. (2014) found the western tropical Pacific decadal and multidecadal sea level variability intensified during recent decades. Many previous studies have associated sea level

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Rui M. Ponte, Katherine J. Quinn, and Christopher G. Piecuch

comparable, for example, to estimates of decadal variability in the Southern Ocean (e.g., Hogg et al. 2015 ) and the subpolar North Atlantic (e.g., Häkkinen and Rhines 2004 ) derived from altimeter data uncorrected for GAL effects. Thus, trends are sizable and likely to corrupt any dynamical inferences made based on altimetry and hydrography measurements, if GAL effects are not properly corrected for. Given its lower latitudes and better coverage from both altimetry and the Argo system, for the

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Joel R. Norris and Amato T. Evan

subgrid-scale cloud processes and produce cloud simulations that are inconsistent with one another and with observations (e.g., Clement et al. 2009 ; Klein et al. 2013 ). The shortcomings of theory and global climate models motivate the alternative approach of observing how clouds have changed in recent decades, a time period of rapidly increasing anthropogenic forcing and warming of the climate system. If patterns of multidecadal cloud variability likely to be associated with anthropogenically

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Christopher G. Piecuch, Ichiro Fukumori, Rui M. Ponte, and Ou Wang

1. Introduction Launched in March 2002, the twin Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) spacecraft have been making nearly continuous measurements of mass redistribution in the climate system for more than a decade ( Tapley et al. 2004 ). Estimates of ocean bottom pressure ( ) derived from such observations are a powerful tool for studying ocean circulation and climate variability ( Wahr et al. 1998 ). The data have been applied to quantify ice sheet and mountain glacier contributions

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Li Zhai, Blair Greenan, Richard Thomson, and Scott Tinis

1. Introduction Satellite altimeter data reveal that the global mean sea level has been rising at an average rate of 3 mm yr −1 over the past several decades ( Church et al. 2013 ; Dieng et al. 2017 ; Chen et al. 2017 ). The future rate of global mean sea level rise is projected to exceed the average observed rate under all Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios ( IPCC 2013 ). Relative sea level rise across Canada and along the East Coast of the United States show

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Rui M. Ponte

1. Introduction Observations from the global array of tide gauges and more recently from satellite altimetry reveal a continuum of low-frequency sea level variability, from well-defined seasonal cycles and large interannual and decadal fluctuations to more subtle secular trends. Part of this variability is directly related to changes in the circulation and heat and freshwater contents of the oceans and can thus provide fundamental clues toward understanding the oceans' role in climate. Other

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N. S. Lucas, J. H. Simpson, T. P. Rippeth, and C. P. Old

good degree of consistency over two decades of variation in dissipation in both the mean values and the variability of ε over short time scales. In comparing these estimates of dissipation, it is important to remember that the ADCP mooring and shipborne ADCP measurements were separated horizontally by a distance of ~1 km, as indicated in Fig. 2 . As an alternative comparison of the two ε measurements, we show the corresponding VMP and ADCP-SF values plotted against each other in Fig. 12

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Jacques Testud, Erwan Le Bouar, Estelle Obligis, and Mustapha Ali-Mehenni

light and moderate rain, Marshall and Palmer (1948) found that N 0 was invariant with the rain rate and obtained a value of N 0 = 0.8 × 10 7 m −4 . This stable N 0 value seems to hold for large statistical averaging, while between a wide variety of events, or within one specific event, between convective and stratiform rain, N 0 variability appears quite large, covering two decades. An improved description may also be obtained from a three-parameter distribution as: N ( D ) = N 0 D μ

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Kaya Kanemaru, Takuji Kubota, Toshio Iguchi, Yukari N. Takayabu, and Riko Oki

. PR and DPR not only estimate precipitation rate accurately over both land and the oceans but also provide adequate information to derive precipitation characteristics (e.g., storm top height and precipitation vertical profile). Homogeneity of long-term PR/DPR data is essential to study water cycle changes related to interannual variability and decadal change. Long-term precipitation datasets— that is, data spanning 20–30 years—estimated by infrared and microwave imagers are also available (e

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Ming Li, Jiping Liu, Zhenzhan Wang, Hui Wang, Zhanhai Zhang, Lin Zhang, and Qinghua Yang

conduct preliminary intercomparisons of the consistency and discrepancy between the NWP reanalysis and satellite-based sea surface wind speed for the Southern Ocean from the climatological and interannual-to-decadal variability perspective. Such intercomparisons are useful for identifying geophysical regimes linked to the identified differences, which may need further investigation. The same “ice mask” for all four products is generated based on their sea ice cover or missing values. The monthly

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