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  • Global Drought Information System - Drought Characterization, Occurrence, Driving Mechanisms, and Predictability Worldwide (GDIS Worldwide) x
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Siegfried D. Schubert, Ronald E. Stewart, Hailan Wang, Mathew Barlow, Ernesto H. Berbery, Wenju Cai, Martin P. Hoerling, Krishna K. Kanikicharla, Randal D. Koster, Bradfield Lyon, Annarita Mariotti, Carlos R. Mechoso, Omar V. Müller, Belen Rodriguez-Fonseca, Richard Seager, Sonia I. Seneviratne, Lixia Zhang, and Tianjun Zhou

atmosphere) element to the large-scale motions that significantly limits our ability to predict drought at the longer leads. The various articles in the GDIS drought special collection assess, from a regional perspective, the global processes associated with meteorological drought. We summarize these findings here, while also providing additional background on climate change aspects and regarding meteorological drought on the European continent. In addition, to provide a global framework for our

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Siegfried D. Schubert, Hailan Wang, Randal D. Koster, Max J. Suarez, and Pavel Ya. Groisman

1. Introduction “While in western Europe there is continual rain and they complain about the cold summer, here in Russia there is a terrible drought. In southern Russia all the cereal and fruit crops have died, and around St Petersburg the forest fires are such that in the city itself, especially in the evening, there is a thick haze of smoke and a smell of burning. Yesterday, the burning woods and peat bogs threatened the ammunition stores of the artillery range and even the Okhtensk gunpowder

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Mathew Barlow, Benjamin Zaitchik, Shlomit Paz, Emily Black, Jason Evans, and Andrew Hoell

were modulated by the NAO. A wet-minus-dry composite showed that precipitation departures over the Jordan valley were out of phase with precipitation departures over southern Europe and associated with changes in storm-track structure over the Mediterranean Sea. A major part of eastern Mediterranean precipitation is controlled by a large-scale process associated with two main anticyclonic centers: the Azorian and Siberian highs. During periods with intensive anticyclones over central Europe, the

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Belen Rodríguez-Fonseca, Elsa Mohino, Carlos R. Mechoso, Cyril Caminade, Michela Biasutti, Marco Gaetani, J. Garcia-Serrano, Edward K. Vizy, Kerry Cook, Yongkang Xue, Irene Polo, Teresa Losada, Leonard Druyan, Bernard Fontaine, Juergen Bader, Francisco J. Doblas-Reyes, Lisa Goddard, Serge Janicot, Alberto Arribas, William Lau, Andrew Colman, M. Vellinga, David P. Rowell, Fred Kucharski, and Aurore Voldoire

al. 2012 ; Hernández-Díaz et al. 2013 ). The European Commission Seventh Framework Programme (EC FP7) Quantifying Weather and Climate Impacts on Health in Developing Countries (QWECI) project has aimed to understand, on a more fundamental level, the climate drivers of the vector-borne diseases of malaria, Rift Valley fever, and certain tick-borne diseases, all of which have major human and livestock health and economic implications in Africa ( Cash et al. 2013 ; Tompkins and Ermert 2013

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Omar V. Müller, Ernesto Hugo Berbery, Domingo Alcaraz-Segura, and Michael B. Ek

( Anderson et al. 1976 ), generated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science, the University of Nebraska–Lincoln, and the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission. The map was derived from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) images collected daily over a 12-month period from April 1992 through March 1993 with 1-km resolution ( Eidenshink and Faudeen 1994 ). In the case of

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Richard Seager and Martin Hoerling

forced by anomalous heat sources over the warm tropical Pacific SST anomalies ( Hoskins and Karoly 1981 ). Trenberth et al. (1988) then applied linear wave theory to link the 1988 drought to the ongoing La Niña event and Palmer and Brankovic (1989) claimed to be able to produce important elements of the same drought within the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) numerical weather prediction model when forced by the observed SSTs. Explaining a seasonal drought is good

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