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Arturo Sanchez-Lorenzo, Josep Calbó, and Javier Martin-Vide

air pollution regulatory actions in developed countries and also due to declining economies in most eastern European countries in the late 1980s ( Streets et al. 2006 ). There might be a relationship between solar radiation at the earth’s surface and air temperature variations ( Kaiser and Qian 2002 ). Thus, dimming is consistent with the hypothesis that anthropogenic aerosol cooling effect partially offset greenhouse warming over much of Eurasia during the 1960s through the 1980s ( Charlson et al

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Ricardo García-Herrera, Jose M. Garrido-Perez, David Barriopedro, Carlos Ordóñez, Sergio M. Vicente-Serrano, Raquel Nieto, Luis Gimeno, Rogert Sorí, and Pascal Yiou

1. Introduction Droughts are among the main hydroclimatic hazards, but they are very difficult to quantify and spatially map ( Wilhite and Pulwarty 2017 ). They cause large economic losses, water scarcity, some ecological impacts such as decreases in gross primary production (e.g., Ciais et al. 2005 ), and the occurrence of forest fires (e.g., Pausas 2004 ). In Europe, the economic losses associated with droughts have been increasing since the early 2000s, with an average of 6758 million

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Daniel G. Kingston, James H. Stagge, Lena M. Tallaksen, and David M. Hannah

southern Europe ( Orlowsky and Seneviratne 2013 ). Given the likelihood of increased drought hazard and the need to mitigate drought impacts, improved understanding of the controls on drought occurrence is vital. Such knowledge is critical to enable improved detection and prediction of drought onset. Previous studies have sought to establish the atmospheric controls on drought occurrence at the European (or sub-European) scale, for both meteorological and streamflow drought indicators. Several

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Breanna L. Zavadoff and Ben P. Kirtman

( Lavers and Villarini 2015 ; Debbage et al. 2017 ). In the Northern Hemisphere ARs primarily make landfall over the U.S. West Coast and western Europe ( Guan and Waliser 2015 ), making both regions active areas for AR research. For both the western United States and western Europe ARs have been established as crucial components of the hydrological cycle, because they provide each region with 20%–30% of their annual precipitation ( Neiman et al. 2008 ; Lavers and Villarini 2015 ). In addition, over

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Lukas Brunner, Gabriele C. Hegerl, and Andrea K. Steiner

1. Introduction European weather and climate are strongly influenced by large-scale circulation patterns such as the Atlantic storm tracks, the jet stream, and atmospheric blocking (e.g., Woollings 2010 ). Atmospheric blocking describes a meteorological situation in which a persistent and stationary high pressure system blocks the climatological westerly flow at midlatitudes for several days to weeks ( Rex 1950 ; Tibaldi and Molteni 1990 ; Pelly and Hoskins 2003 ; Barriopedro et al. 2006

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Cristina Peña-Ortiz, David Barriopedro, and Ricardo García-Herrera

1. Introduction European average temperatures have risen over the last century, with a faster rate over the last decades that ranges between 0.2° and 0.5°C decade −1 for the period 1981–2012 ( Hartmann et al. 2013 ). The annual cycle of the surface temperature over Europe has also experienced changes over the last decades, including a shift toward earlier seasons and larger annual peak-to-peak amplitudes, the latter being opposite to overall trends over land (e.g., Stine et al. 2009 ). Many

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C. J. Bell, L. J. Gray, A. J. Charlton-Perez, M. M. Joshi, and A. A. Scaife

in composite studies of long datasets ( Mann et al. 2000 ; Brönnimann et al. 2007 ), appearing as a projection onto a negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The signal is manifest as a zonally orientated dipole over Europe with anomalously high MSLP over northern Europe, and low MSLP over southern Europe and the Mediterranean ( van Loon and Madden 1981 ; Fraedrich et al. 1992 ; Gouirand and Moron 2003 ). In general, the NH extratropical winter response takes on a structure

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Olga Zolina, Clemens Simmer, Konstantin Belyaev, Sergey K. Gulev, and Peter Koltermann

1. Introduction Rising intensities of mean and heavy precipitation over Europe during the last decades have been documented in many studies ( Klein Tank and Können 2003 ; Zolina et al. 2005 , 2009 ; Groisman et al. 2005 ; Moberg et al. 2006 ; Alexander et al. 2006 ). More detailed studies also confirm these tendencies for certain regions of Europe ( Frei and Schär 2001 ; Schmidli and Frei 2005 ; Brunetti et al. 2006 ; Zolina et al. 2008 ; Łupikasza et al. 2011 ; Villarini et al. 2011

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David P. Rowell

1. Introduction A well-known feature of future climate change scenarios is drier midlatitude continental summers, particularly over Europe, the United States, and parts of southern Canada (e.g., Manabe and Wetherald 1987 ; Gregory et al. 1997 ; Wetherald and Manabe 1999 ; Rowell and Jones 2006 , hereafter RJ06 ; Christensen et al. 2007 ). This drying, along with accompanying heat waves, is expected to have notable impacts on society and ecosystems, affecting, for example, water resources

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Ronald van Haren, Reindert J. Haarsma, Geert Jan Van Oldenborgh, and Wilco Hazeleger

1. Introduction General circulation models (GCMs) attempt to simulate Earth’s climate. Often these models are used to isolate the drivers of climate change in response to natural and/or anthropogenic forcings. While some features are well represented in GCMs (e.g., global temperature), other aspects remain uncertain ( Flato et al. 2014 ). One of these aspects is (regional) precipitation in Europe ( van Haren et al. 2013a , b ). A correct representation of precipitation in climate models is

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