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  • DEEPWAVE: The Deep Propagating Gravity Wave Experiment x
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Tanja C. Portele, Andreas Dörnbrack, Johannes S. Wagner, Sonja Gisinger, Benedikt Ehard, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, and Markus Rapp

, wave momentum flux was accumulated during accelerating forcing due to conservation of wave action. In contrast, the flow over higher mountains generated gravity wave breaking at lower levels. Here, the accumulated maximum of the zonal momentum flux during the high-drag state occurred shortly after the time of maximum wind. So far, no real-world case studies exist investigating a mountain-wave field excited by transient low-level forcing and propagating into the middle atmosphere. In this case study

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David C. Fritts, Ronald B. Smith, Michael J. Taylor, James D. Doyle, Stephen D. Eckermann, Andreas Dörnbrack, Markus Rapp, Bifford P. Williams, P.-Dominique Pautet, Katrina Bossert, Neal R. Criddle, Carolyn A. Reynolds, P. Alex Reinecke, Michael Uddstrom, Michael J. Revell, Richard Turner, Bernd Kaifler, Johannes S. Wagner, Tyler Mixa, Christopher G. Kruse, Alison D. Nugent, Campbell D. Watson, Sonja Gisinger, Steven M. Smith, Ruth S. Lieberman, Brian Laughman, James J. Moore, William O. Brown, Julie A. Haggerty, Alison Rockwell, Gregory J. Stossmeister, Steven F. Williams, Gonzalo Hernandez, Damian J. Murphy, Andrew R. Klekociuk, Iain M. Reid, and Jun Ma

reflected in the many seminal papers, reviews, and books describing these various processes. Examples of those addressing atmospheric GW topics of most relevance to DEEPWAVE science include the following: GW linear dynamics, propagation, conservation properties, and fluxes ( Hines 1960 ; Eliassen and Palm 1961 ; Bretherton 1969a , b ; Booker and Bretherton 1967 ; Gossard and Hooke 1975 ; Smith 1980 ; Nappo 2013 ); GW sources, characteristics, and responses ( Fritts 1984 ; Fritts and Alexander

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Sonja Gisinger, Andreas Dörnbrack, Vivien Matthias, James D. Doyle, Stephen D. Eckermann, Benedikt Ehard, Lars Hoffmann, Bernd Kaifler, Christopher G. Kruse, and Markus Rapp

-Interim and MLS to obtain the quasi-stationary PW1 amplitude. Note that this analysis is done by using a 10-day window shifted by 1 day to eliminate the influence of migrating waves such as tides. Vertical energy fluxes ( ) over the SI at 4- and 12-km altitude were computed from mesoscale simulations of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model with a horizontal resolution of 6 km. The model was initialized and continuously guided by MERRA2 reanalyses. To compute the perturbations of pressure and

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Tyler Mixa, Andreas Dörnbrack, and Markus Rapp

from the Advanced Mesospheric Temperature Mapper (AMTM), which remained stationary for several hours ( Pautet et al. 2016 ). Simultaneous lidar measurements of sodium mixing ratios in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) indicate peak gravity wave amplitudes of ≈±10 K at z ≈ 83 km and λ x ≈ 40 km. Later flight legs show strong indications of gravity wave breaking, with apparent vortex ring formation and momentum fluxes estimated over 320 m 2 s −2 ( Pautet et al. 2016 ). Eckermann et al

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Benedikt Ehard, Peggy Achtert, Andreas Dörnbrack, Sonja Gisinger, Jörg Gumbel, Mikhail Khaplanov, Markus Rapp, and Johannes Wagner

of the combined dataset derives vertical wavelength and gravity wave potential energy density using the observed and simulated temperature deviations from the estimated background profiles. Additionally, the WRF Model output provides quantities like wind, vertical energy fluxes, and stability parameters (Richardson number and displacement of isentropic surfaces) in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. Thus, results of the combined dataset enable a more comprehensive characterization of gravity

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