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Hailing Zhang, Zhaoxia Pu, and Xuebo Zhang

performances of different PBL schemes in simulating near-surface temperature and wind speed and direction. Their results revealed that the model could reproduce diurnal variations in surface temperature and wind direction. However, all the boundary layer schemes underestimated (overestimated) wind speeds during the daytime (nighttime). Their study was conducted over the central United States during the summer, where little organized convection and topographical forcing was present. The problem becomes more

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Sean M. Wile, Joshua P. Hacker, and Kenneth H. Chilcoat

1. Introduction Fog events in the Salt Lake basin in Utah, with impacts on aviation operations at the Salt Lake City International Airport (KSLC), arise in a range of flow scenarios. Typically, weak synoptic forcing and nonlinear water phase changes present challenges to numerical weather prediction (NWP) models when fog is possible. Because interactions between the land–water surface and the lower atmosphere can strongly modulate fog production and dissipation, near-surface shelter and

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Jeffrey D. Massey, W. James Steenburgh, Jason C. Knievel, and William Y. Y. Cheng

schemes. The SCM is run over a 3 × 3 gridpoint stencil with periodic lateral boundary conditons, no external forcing, and the same physics packages and vertical grid spacing as in 4DWX-DPG, except in sensitivity studies involving radiation or PBL schemes. Simulations with varying C zil , radiation schemes, or PBL schemes use a soil moisture of 0.235 m 3 m −3 , whereas simulations with varying soil moisture, radiation schemes, or PBL schemes use a C zil of 0.518 over shrubland and 0.877 over playa

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