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James H. Ruppert Jr. and Fuqing Zhang

; namely, their role in forcing and coupling with long-lived gravity waves. Among the most dominant drivers of weather variability in the MC is the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO; Madden and Julian 1972 ). The MJO is a convectively coupled tropical wave that propagates slowly eastward (~5 m s −1 ) through the Indo-Pacific warm pool region, modulating deep overturning motion and moist convection on intraseasonal time scales ( Zhang 2005 ). Yet since the diurnal cycle is the primary rainfall mechanism

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James H. Ruppert Jr., Xingchao Chen, and Fuqing Zhang

conspire to promote nocturnal low-level convergence, moistening, and destabilization, and hence provide explanations for the triggering and maintenance of these MCSs, though not their propagation. Yet in other regions, nocturnal propagating convective systems exist both without low-level jets and without continuous orographic forcing, as exemplified by the many examples of offshore-propagating nocturnal systems: in the Tiwi Islands ( Carbone et al. 2000 ); the Panama Bight region ( Mapes et al. 2003a

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Giuseppe Torri, David K. Adams, Huiqun Wang, and Zhiming Kuang

events in the western United States related to tropical forcing . J. Climate , 13 , 793 – 820 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2000)013<0793:EPEITW>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0442(2000)013<0793:EPEITW>2.0.CO;2 Holloway , C. E. , and J. D. Neelin , 2009 : Moisture vertical structure, column water vapor, and tropical deep convection . J. Atmos. Sci. , 66 , 1665 – 1683 , https://doi.org/10.1175/2008JAS2806.1 . 10.1175/2008JAS2806.1 Holloway , C. E. , and J. D. Neelin , 2010

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