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Haiming Xu, Hiroki Tokinaga, and Shang-Ping Xie

the reduced dynamical effects allow surface flux to dominate SST variability ( Alexander et al. 1999 ; Tomita et al. 2002 ; Cassou et al. 2007 ). The presence or absence of the SST anomaly associated with this large meander explains why the atmospheric effects are strong during winter and early spring and weak during summer. 4. Modeling a. Model and experimental design We use the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model (version 3.0.1; Skamarock et al. 2005 ) to examine the large meander

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Hailan Wang, Siegfried Schubert, Max Suarez, and Randal Koster

and to address the issue of the model dependence in representing the linkages between the leading SST patterns and U.S. drought. The participating AGCMs are the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Seasonal-to-Interannual Prediction Project (NSIPP) version 1 AGCM at the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) ( Bacmeister et al. 2000 ); the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Global Forecast System (GFS) ( Campana and Caplan 2005 ); the National Center for

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Xujing Jia Davis, Lewis M. Rothstein, William K. Dewar, and Dimitris Menemenlis

configuration is given in Menemenlis et al. (2005b) and in Fox-Kemper and Menemenlis (2008) . The ECCO2 simulation spans January 1979–November 2006. Its surface boundary conditions are obtained from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) 40-year reanalysis (ERA-40; Uppala et al. 2005 ) except for precipitation, which is taken from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP; Adler et al. 2003 ). The ECMWF analysis ( Gibson et al. 1997 ) is used after August 2002 when the

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