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Lei Shi, Ge Peng, and John J. Bates

further improved through refinements to the regression formula, training dataset, collocation procedure, and height adjustment to 10 m ( Jackson et al. 2009 ). Zong et al. (2007) used the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System (EOS) (AMSR-E) to derive near-surface specific humidity. Roberts et al. (2010) developed retrieval algorithms based on the neural network technique to derive sea surface temperature, air temperature, specific humidity, and wind speed. Jackson and

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Sohey Nihashi, Kay I. Ohshima, and Noriaki Kimura

appropriate in their heat flux calculation. For example, sea ice was treated as weekly ice cover, without considering its concentration, in the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) reanalysis dataset ( Kalnay et al. 1996 ) and in the 40-yr European Centre for the Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Re-Analysis (ERA-40) dataset ( Uppala et al. 2005 ). Ice concentration was taken into account in the Ocean Model Intercomparison Project (OMIP

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ChuanLi Jiang, Sarah T. Gille, Janet Sprintall, Kei Yoshimura, and Masao Kanamitsu

resolving smaller scale features than the older NWP products. Recently the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts released more than two years (May 2008–present) of data from their high-resolution operational product in support of the Year of Coordinated Observing Modeling and Forcasting Tropical Convection (YOTC) ( Waliser and Moncrieff 2008 ), hereafter referred to as ECMWF-YOTC. Dynamical downscaling ( Kanamitsu and Kanamaru 2007 ) offers another strategy for obtaining small-scale fluxes

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