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Jean-Christophe Golaz, Marc Salzmann, Leo J. Donner, Larry W. Horowitz, Yi Ming, and Ming Zhao

better than alternate configurations S1, S2, and S3, although scores often differ only very slightly. Table 3. Summary of root-mean-square error (rmse) and correlation (corr) between model configurations and various observations. Sea level pressure (SLP), and 200- and 850-hPa zonal wind (U200, U850) are compared to 40-yr European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Re-Analyses (ERA-40s) ( Uppala et al. 2005 ); precipitation is compared to GPCP v2 ( Adler et al. 2003 ); shortwave and longwave

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Leo J. Donner, Bruce L. Wyman, Richard S. Hemler, Larry W. Horowitz, Yi Ming, Ming Zhao, Jean-Christophe Golaz, Paul Ginoux, S.-J. Lin, M. Daniel Schwarzkopf, John Austin, Ghassan Alaka, William F. Cooke, Thomas L. Delworth, Stuart M. Freidenreich, C. T. Gordon, Stephen M. Griffies, Isaac M. Held, William J. Hurlin, Stephen A. Klein, Thomas R. Knutson, Amy R. Langenhorst, Hyun-Chul Lee, Yanluan Lin, Brian I. Magi, Sergey L. Malyshev, P. C. D. Milly, Vaishali Naik, Mary J. Nath, Robert Pincus, Jeffrey J. Ploshay, V. Ramaswamy, Charles J. Seman, Elena Shevliakova, Joseph J. Sirutis, William F. Stern, Ronald J. Stouffer, R. John Wilson, Michael Winton, Andrew T. Wittenberg, and Fanrong Zeng

westerlies appears in the equatorial stratosphere around 10 hPa, and stratospheric westerlies at polar latitudes can be over 50% stronger than in the 40-yr European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Re-Analysis (ERA-40). In the troposphere, westerly biases are smaller in CM3 than AM3 in the Southern Hemisphere but larger in the Northern Hemisphere. Fig . 14. Annual-mean, zonally averaged zonal wind (m s −1 ) for (a) AM3, (b) ERA-40, (c) AM3 minus ERA-40, and (d) CM3 minus ERA-40. Wind stresses in

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