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John A. Knox, Donald W. McCann, and Paul D. Williams

-friendly version of the Lighthill–Ford theory, and discuss each forcing term and the relationship of the leading-order terms to established CAT forecasting techniques. In section 3 the method used to apply this theory as a CAT forecasting tool is explained. In section 4 a case study is presented showing the utility of Lighthill–Ford theory in CAT forecasting. Section 5 examines a season-long database that demonstrates the superiority of applying this theory versus other CAT forecasting methods, and

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Gregory J. Hakim

𝗨 and 𝗩 are orthogonal matrices of size N × p and n × p , respectively, and 𝗦 is a p × p diagonal matrix containing the leading p singular values of 𝗖. The linear inversion operator is approximated by where q̃ = 𝗩 T q , and the inverse is achieved by a svd-pseudoinverse technique ( Golub and van Loan 1996 ). Figure 2 shows results for the inversion of height and divergence from potential vorticity for the independent ensemble member. Root-mean-square (RMS) errors in the

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Dong L. Wu and Stephen D. Eckermann

Radiometry; Preusse et al. 2006 ). These techniques deduce atmospheric pressure and/or temperature from optically thin radiances and can measure GW-induced temperature perturbations with slightly better vertical resolution but relatively poorer horizontal resolution than MLS. Thus, the resolved GW-induced temperature variances from these instruments correspond to different portions of the three-dimensional (3D) GW wavenumber spectrum than those based on saturated radiances ( Wu et al. 2006a ). Second

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Yonghui Lin and Fuqing Zhang

-scale imbalance in generating mesoscale gravity waves were further examined most recently in Plougonven and Zhang (2007) . However, as noted in Lane et al. (2004) , without a sophisticated wave source analysis it is often difficult to determine unambiguously whether mesoscale structures, such as jets and upper-level fronts, are the source of the gravity waves or a response to some other forcing that also generates the waves. The ray-tracing technique has been widely used to investigate gravity wave sources

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