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Zewdu T. Segele, Michael B. Richman, Lance M. Leslie, and Peter J. Lamb

; Charney and Shukla 1981 ; Xue and Shukla 1993 ; Clark and Arritt 1995 ; Clark et al. 2001 ). The surface boundary focus of the present Ethiopian study is SST. However, El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-related “predictability barrier” in Northern Hemisphere spring (e.g., Goswami and Shukla 1991 ; Webster and Yang 1992 ; Webster et al. 1998 ) can pose a major challenge to providing seasonal rainfall forecasts two or more months in advance in the tropics ( Goddard et al. 2001 ; Korecha and

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Rosalind Cornforth, Douglas J. Parker, Mariane Diop-Kane, Andreas H. Fink, Jean-Philippe Lafore, Arlene Laing, Ernest Afiesimama, Jim Caughey, Aida Diongue-Niang, Abdou Kassimou, Peter Lamb, Benjamin Lamptey, Zilore Mumba, Ifeanyi Nnodu, Jerome Omotosho, Steve Palmer, Patrick Parrish, Leon-Guy Razafindrakoto, Wassila Thiaw, Chris Thorncroft, and Adrian Tompkins

Africa and updating forecasting techniques. Meteorology of Tropical West Africa: The Forecasters’ Handbook utilizes the new weather and climate research from AMMA and makes this applicable to forecasting. Through its sponsorship by the World Meteorological Organization, and its publication as a textbook in 2017, the methods and tools will be made available to the operational prediction community in West Africa; to early-career researchers; to summer school participants such as those with the Ewiem

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Wassila M. Thiaw and Vadlamani B. Kumar

(ECHAM versions A and F), the NOAA/Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) model, the NASA model, the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) model, and the ensemble mean of these models (ENSM). All model hindcasts cover the period 1981–2010. In an attempt to improve seasonal forecast skill, we employ CCA to downscale the U.S. NMME forecasts. The technique employed is described in Mo and Thiaw (2002) and consists of using U.S. NMME precipitation forecasts in a relatively large domain

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Robert A. Clark III, Zachary L. Flamig, Humberto Vergara, Yang Hong, Jonathan J. Gourley, Daniel J. Mandl, Stuart Frye, Matthew Handy, and Maria Patterson

A hydrological modeling framework suitable for multiscale flood forecasting is introduced and used to build capacity in the Republic of Namibia and around the world. Situated along Africa’s southwest coast, Namibia is a country renowned for its ancient deserts. The most arid country in sub-Saharan Africa, Namibia contains the majority of the Namib Desert, the oldest in the world, and a large portion of the dry Kalahari savannah and semidesert region ( Barnard et al. 1998 ). However, 15% of the

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Susan Stillman, Xubin Zeng, and Michael G. Bosilovich

Climate Anomaly Monitoring System CCSM Community Climate System Model CDEC California Data Exchange Center CESM Community Earth System Model CFSR Climate Forecast System Reanalysis CMAP CPC Merged Analysis of Precipitation CMIP Coupled Model Intercomparison Project CMORPH CPC morphing technique COOP Cooperative Observer CPC Climate Prediction Center DMSP Defense Meteorological Satellite Program EC Environment Canada ECMWF European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts ERA ECMWF Re-Analysis GFDL

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Abdou L. Dieng, Saidou M. Sall, Laurence Eymard, Marion Leduc-Leballeur, and Alban Lazar

60% of the Atlantic basin tropical storms and nonmajor hurricanes, and that they account for about 85% of major hurricanes ( Landsea 1993 ). However, the proportion that strengthens to tropical cyclones among those leaving the West Africa coast is quite small [about 6%, see Hopsch et al. (2010) and Arnault and Roux (2011) ]. Based on automatic tracking of vorticity centers in European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analyses, Thorncroft and Hodges (2001) developed a 20-yr

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Thomas Engel, Andreas H. Fink, Peter Knippertz, Gregor Pante, and Jan Bliefernicht

precipitation events is based on 6-hourly data of temperature, wind, and humidity from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) interim reanalysis (ERA-Interim, hereafter ERA-I; Dee et al. 2011 ). ERA-I covers the time period from 1979 to present with a horizontal resolution of 0.75° × 0.75° latitude–longitude and 60 vertical levels up to 0.1 hPa. The events will be assessed with regard to their anomalous total precipitable water (TPW) content with respect to the 1979–2014 period

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Rahul S. Todmal

drought-prone zones in the state. The chronic drought-prone zone in Maharashtra (covering most of the present study area) registered the highest frequency of drought ( Deosthali 2002 ). The drought studies carried out by Gore and Sinha Ray (2002) and Gore et al. (2010) emphasize the same fact. The occurrence of drought affects the production and productivity of sorghum and pearl millet crops in this region of the state ( Gore and Sinha Ray 2002 ). With the application of remote sensing techniques

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