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Adrian J. Matthews, Dariusz B. Baranowski, Karen J. Heywood, Piotr J. Flatau, and Sunke Schmidtko

diurnal warm layer. As the solar radiation flux decreases through the afternoon, it is eventually overwhelmed by the cooling fluxes of latent heat, infrared radiation, and sensible heat, and the temperature of the diurnal warm layer decreases. After sunset (1800 LST) there is rapid cooling and mixing and a return to isothermal conditions at 0000 LST the next day. The colored vertical lines in Fig. 3a show the times of the seven glider profiles during that day ( Fig. 3b ), which the optimally

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Jianhao Zhang, Paquita Zuidema, David D. Turner, and Maria P. Cadeddu

.1175/1520-0469(1993)050<2922:TIOIAS>2.0.CO;2 Blumberg , W. G. , D. D. Turner , U. Löhnert , and S. Castleberry , 2015 : Ground-based temperature and humidity profiling using spectral infrared and microwave observations. Part II: Actual retrieval performance in clear-sky and cloudy conditions . J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol. , 54 , 2305 – 2319 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JAMC-D-15-0005.1 . 10.1175/JAMC-D-15-0005.1 Cadeddu , M. P. , J. C. Liljegren , and D. D. Turner , 2013 : The Atmospheric Radiation

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Simon P. de Szoeke, James B. Edson, June R. Marion, Christopher W. Fairall, and Ludovic Bariteau

of flow distortion on the rain gauges. The optical rain had good exposure on the forward mast and lower sensitivity to wind. Therefore, the adjusted rain rate from the optical rain gauge is used as the in situ time series of precipitation from the Revelle . The adjusted rain rate from the optical rain gauge agrees well with nearby buoy measurements. e. Radiative fluxes The downwelling thermal infrared (IR) radiation is computed using an average of the motion-stabilized ESRL/PSD pyrgeometers

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Richard H. Johnson, Paul E. Ciesielski, James H. Ruppert Jr., and Masaki Katsumata

number of the outstanding issues related to the MJO, with particular attention to tropospheric moistening processes, evolving cloud populations, and air–sea interaction during its initiation. The experiment consisted of four collaborating campaign components ( Yoneyama et al. 2013 ): Dynamics of the MJO (DYNAMO), Cooperative Indian Ocean Experiment on Intraseasonal Variability in the Year 2011 (CINDY), Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) MJO Investigation Experiment (AMIE), and Littoral

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Shuguang Wang, Adam H. Sobel, Fuqing Zhang, Y. Qiang Sun, Ying Yue, and Lei Zhou

5 modeling system. Part I: Model implementation and sensitivity . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 129 , 569 – 585 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0493(2001)129<0569:CAALSH>2.0.CO;2 . Chou , M. D. , and M. J. Suarez , 1994 : An efficient thermal infrared radiation parameterization for use in general circulation models. NASA Tech. Memo. 104606, 98 pp . Ciesielski , P. E. , and Coauthors , 2014 : Quality-controlled upper-air sounding dataset for DYNAMO/CINDY/AMIE: Development and corrections . J. Atmos. Oceanic

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Eric D. Skyllingstad and Simon P. de Szoeke

with higher surface winds and suppressed MJO phase moisture convergence to examine how increased surface fluxes from stronger winds affect convective activity versus externally forced moisture convergence. Simulations are conducted using a version of the Skyllingstad and Edson (2009) LES model that includes parameterizations for the radiative transfer of infrared and solar radiation ( Mlawer et al. 1997 ) along with a seven-component cloud microphysics scheme ( Thompson et al. 2008 ). Model

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Paul E. Ciesielski, Richard H. Johnson, Wayne H. Schubert, and James H. Ruppert Jr.

circulation in response to cloud-radiative feedbacks ( Gray and Jacobson 1977 , hereafter GJ77 ; Randall et al. 1991 ). Yet, because of a lack of in situ observations, very few studies have examined the modulation of large-scale overturning circulation by diurnally varying organized deep convection. This study addresses this gap. Nicholls (2015) gives a detailed review of the three main proposed mechanisms by which radiation affects organized oceanic convective systems. The “convergence

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James N. Moum, Simon P. de Szoeke, William D. Smyth, James B. Edson, H. Langley DeWitt, Aurélie J. Moulin, Elizabeth J. Thompson, Christopher J. Zappa, Steven A. Rutledge, Richard H. Johnson, and Christopher W. Fairall

profiles from hull-mounted Doppler sonar; water column optical profiles to determine the penetrating solar radiation, a key contributor to air–sea heat exchanges; sea surface (skin) temperature from infrared radiometers; near-surface ocean temperature and salinity profiles from ~0.05- to 7-m depth from a towed surface thermistor (SeaSnake) and fixed subsurface array (CT chain); and continuous profiling (150–200 casts per day) of upper-ocean temperature; salinity; microscale shear; and subsurface

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Naoko Sakaeda, Scott W. Powell, Juliana Dias, and George N. Kiladis

depending on the cloud and rain types examined, such as high versus low clouds or heavy versus light rain rates ( Albright et al. 1985 ; Janowiak et al. 1994 ; Chen and Houze 1997 ; Cairns 1995 ; Sakaeda et al. 2017 ). In past studies, clouds were generally categorized by infrared brightness temperature ( Albright et al. 1985 ; Janowiak et al. 1994 ; Chen and Houze 1997 ) or cloud-top pressure estimated from brightness temperatures ( Cairns 1995 ; Sakaeda et al. 2017 ). This method enables

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Wen-wen Tung, Dimitrios Giannakis, and Andrew J. Majda

Earth’s infrared emission in terms of the temperature of a hypothesized blackbody emitting the same amount of radiation at the same wavelength (~10–11 µ m in CLAUS). It is a highly correlated variable with the total terrestrial longwave emission. In the tropics, positive (negative) T B anomalies are associated with reduced (increased) cloudiness, hence suppressed (enhanced) deep convection. The global CLAUS T B (Λ, Φ, t ) data are on a 0.5° longitude (Λ) × 0.5° latitude (Φ) fixed grid, with 3-h

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