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Benjamin C. Trabing, Michael M. Bell, and Bonnie R. Brown

196, TT199, TT202) and the ensemble mean will be shown unless otherwise noted. Three sets of experiments are conducted using the three derived thermodynamic profiles. One experiment includes both shortwave (solar) and longwave (infrared) radiation and will be referred to as Fullrad. The second experiment includes just longwave radiation and will be referred to as Nightonly. These results are then compared to simulations without radiation, which will be referred to as Norad. The full set of nine

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Patrick Duran and John Molinari

radiation scheme; and DISS is the tendency resulting from turbulent dissipation. This equation neglects Rayleigh damping, since the entire analysis domain (0–200-km radius, 14–21-km height) lies outside of the regions where damping is applied. Each term in Eq. (5) is substituted for in Eq. (4) , yielding the contribution of each budget term to the static stability tendency. These terms are summed, yielding an instantaneous “budget change” in every minute. The budget changes are then averaged over

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Peter Black, Lee Harrison, Mark Beaubien, Robert Bluth, Roy Woods, Andrew Penny, Robert W. Smith, and James D. Doyle

(IR) band. This window is not entirely transparent to atmospheric water vapor and oxygen, the two main atmospheric emission sources in this band. The Twin Otter was equipped with an Infrared Radiation Radiometer (IRT) covering a narrower IR band from 9 to 11 μ m, which is somewhat less sensitive to water vapor. The oscillation of the Twin Otter SSTir during the descent, superimposed onto a linear increase, suggests the possibility that the spiral descent occurred near a cloud boundary. The XDD

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David R. Ryglicki, James D. Doyle, Yi Jin, Daniel Hodyss, and Joshua H. Cossuth

that given the structural differences between tropopause cyclonic and anticyclonic potential vorticity (PV) anomalies ( Hoskins et al. 1985 ; Wirth 2001 ), the strongest environmental winds associated with anticyclones are likely to be confined to a similar layer as the outflow from the TC—usually around 200 hPa ( Merrill and Velden 1996 ). Part I also demonstrated that before the eyes appeared in infrared (IR) and water vapor (WV), each storm exhibited what we referred to as a tilt

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Yi Dai, Sharanya J. Majumdar, and David S. Nolan

) Upper-level atmospheric motion vectors (AMVs) superposed on the GOES-East water vapor images of Hurricane Edouard at 0000, 0600, and 1200 UTC 16 Sep 2014. The red arrow represents the calculated vertical wind shear (~8 m s −1 ) using ERA-Interim data. (d)–(f) As in (a)–(c), but for the corresponding infrared brightness temperature (K). This inconsistency between the VWS and convection not only occurred in Hurricane Edouard (2014). In a recent idealized simulation of the TC interacting with a

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Nannan Qin and Da-Lin Zhang

shortly after the model initiation time or during their RI stages ( Liu et al. 1997 ; Chen et al. 2011 ; Fox and Judt 2018 ). The model physics schemes include (i) the new Thompson et al. (2008) cloud microphysics scheme; (ii) the Yonsei University PBL scheme with the revised MM5 Monin–Obukhov surface layer scheme ( Hong et al. 2006 ); (iii) the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTM) for longwave radiation ( Mlawer et al. 1997 ) and the Dudhia shortwave scheme for shortwave radiation ( Dudhia 1989

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Jie Feng and Xuguang Wang

and Pan 2006 ), and the Ferrier–Aligo microphysics scheme ( Ferrier 1994 , 2005 ), 2) the modified surface layer ( Kwon et al. 2010 ) and nonlocal planetary boundary layer ( Hong and Pan 1996 ) parameterization schemes, and 3) the Eta Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) longwave and shortwave radiation schemes ( Schwarzkopf and Fels 1991 ; Lacis and Hansen 1974 ). Note that the SAS cumulus scheme is only implemented for the outer two domains (i.e., 18- and 6-km grids), but not for the

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Shixuan Zhang, Zhaoxia Pu, and Christopher Velden

for TC applications is employed. This includes the modified GFDL surface-layer parameterization (e.g., Powell et al. 2003 ; Black et al. 2007 ; Kwon et al. 2010 ), the Noah land surface model (e.g., Chen and Dudhia 2001 ; Mitchell et al. 2005 ), the modified Rapid Radiative Transfer Model for general circulation models (RRTMG) shortwave and longwave radiation scheme (e.g., Iacono et al. 2008 ), the Ferrier–Aligo microphysical parameterization (e.g., Ferrier et al. 2002 ; Ferrier 2005

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Jonathan Martinez, Michael M. Bell, Robert F. Rogers, and James D. Doyle

feature tracking in satellite imagery through a combination of water vapor and infrared channels are obtained from the Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) and also included in the analyses ( Velden et al. 1997 , 2005 ). Observations are analyzed for each IOP using a two-dimensional (axisymmetric) variational analysis technique called Spline Analysis at Mesoscale Utilizing Radar and Aircraft Instrumentation (SAMURAI; Bell et al. 2012 ; Foerster et al. 2014 ; Foerster

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