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Ming Feng, Yongliang Duan, Susan Wijffels, Je-Yuan Hsu, Chao Li, Huiwu Wang, Yang Yang, Hong Shen, Jianjun Liu, Chunlin Ning, and Weidong Yu

using fast ocean profiling platforms to resolve the very near-surface ocean temperature structures, as well as the key atmospheric variables such as humidity, air temperature, vector winds, and radiation parameters; such measurements in the region are unprecedented, to assess the upper-ocean response to the MJO forcing in the Indonesian–Australian Basin as compared to other regions in the Indian Ocean. The data will be used to understand the coupled model performance in capturing the scale, strength

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Claire L. Vincent and Todd P. Lane

simulations using a cell-tracking algorithm . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 141 , 557 – 581 , https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-11-00274.1 . 10.1175/MWR-D-11-00274.1 Cao , G. , and G. J. Zhang , 2017 : Role of vertical structure of convective heating in MJO simulation in NCAR CAM5.3 . J. Climate , 30 , 7423 – 7439 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0913.1 . 10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0913.1 Chou , M.-D. , and M. J. Suarez , 1994 : An efficient thermal infrared radiation parameterization for use in general

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Claire L. Vincent and Todd P. Lane

precipitation analysis over the continental United States . Water Resour. Res. , 49 , 8174 – 8186 , doi: 10.1002/2012WR012795 . 10.1002/2012WR012795 Chou , M.-D. , and M. J. Suarez , 1994 : An efficient thermal infrared radiation parameterization for use in general circulation models. NASA Tech. Memo. 104606, 93 pp. Climate Prediction Center , 2011 : NOAA CPC morphing technique (CMORPH) global precipitation analyses 30 minute estimates at 8 km resolution. Accessed 1 August 2015. [Available online

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Wei-Ting Chen, Shih-Pei Hsu, Yuan-Huai Tsai, and Chung-Hsiung Sui

and December 2013 was chosen to compute OLR climatology. The OLR for December 2016 is obtained from NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of OLR version 1.2 ( Lee and NOAA CDR Program 2011 ), which is estimated from High-Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) radiance observations with a 2-day lag. It is given daily with 1° × 1° horizontal resolution. The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts interim reanalysis (ERA-Interim, hereinafter ERA-Int; Dee et al. 2011 ) is utilized for zonal

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James H. Ruppert Jr., Xingchao Chen, and Fuqing Zhang

. Pauluis , and F. Zhang , 2018 : Atmospheric overturning across multiple scales of an MJO event during the CINDY/DYNAMO campaign . J. Atmos. Sci. , 75 , 381 – 399 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-17-0060.1 . 10.1175/JAS-D-17-0060.1 Chou , M.-D. , and M. J. Suarez , 1994 : An efficient thermal infrared radiation parameterization for use in general circulation models. NASA Tech. Memo. 104606, Vol. 3, 85 pp., https://archive.org/details/nasa_techdoc_19950009331 . Coppin , D. , and G

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Giuseppe Torri, David K. Adams, Huiqun Wang, and Zhiming Kuang

Chen , S. S. , and R. A. Houze Jr. , 1997 : Diurnal variation and life-cycle of deep convective systems over the Tropical Pacific Warm Pool . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 123 , 357 – 388 , https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.49712353806 . 10.1002/qj.49712353806 Chou , M. D. , and M. J. Suarez , 1994 : An efficient thermal infrared radiation parameterization for use in general circulation models. NASA Tech. Memo. 104606, Vol. 3, 85 pp., https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950009331

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Jieshun Zhu, Wanqiu Wang, and Arun Kumar

region strengthen or weaken the surface winds, which reduce or enhance the latent heat flux (LHF) at the ocean surface. Further, variations in solar shortwave radiation flux (SWF) at the surface associated with MJO-related changes in cloudiness also occur. The combination of these flux variations can induce SST anomalies to the east and west of the convective region. The zonal SST gradient causes zonal changes in surface moist static energy and provides surface forcing, which induces the convection

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Chidong Zhang and Jian Ling

by topographic interference would impair the MJO ( Hsu and Lee 2005 ; Inness and Slingo 2006 ; Wu and Hsu 2009 ). It has been suggested that cloud–radiation interaction is the source of instability for the MJO and sets its intraseasonal rhythm ( Hu and Randall 1994 , 1995 ; Sobel and Maloney 2013 ; Adames and Kim 2016 ). This interaction can be interrupted by persistent diurnal convection over islands ( Neale and Slingo 2003 ; Hagos et al. 2016 ) that is almost synchronized throughout the

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