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Julia H. Keller, Christian M. Grams, Michael Riemer, Heather M. Archambault, Lance Bosart, James D. Doyle, Jenni L. Evans, Thomas J. Galarneau Jr., Kyle Griffin, Patrick A. Harr, Naoko Kitabatake, Ron McTaggart-Cowan, Florian Pantillon, Julian F. Quinting, Carolyn A. Reynolds, Elizabeth A. Ritchie, Ryan D. Torn, and Fuqing Zhang

moves poleward and starts to interact with the midlatitude flow ( Fig. 1a ). This results in the formation of a jet streak ( Fig. 1b ) and a poleward deflection of the jet near the transitioning cyclone in conjunction with the development of a ridge–trough couplet ( Fig. 1b ). At the same time, a region of enhanced moisture flux—a so-called atmospheric river ( Zhu and Newell 1998 )—forms ahead of the downstream trough. The ridge–trough couplet continues to amplify, a new cyclone develops farther

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Volkmar Wirth, Michael Riemer, Edmund K. M. Chang, and Olivia Martius

gradual than that of the carrier wave (dotted) or the RWP signal (blue). Fig . 1. Schematic of a Rossby wave packet (RWP) at a specific time. The blue line represents , the black dotted line is the underlying carrier wave , and the two red lines depict plus (upper line) and minus (lower line) the amplitude . A real world example is presented in Fig. 2 . Figure 2a shows the midlatitude jet with large meridional undulations over North America. Over the rest of hemisphere, the jet is more zonally

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Gabriel Wolf and Volkmar Wirth

wave activity continues to be transported eastward toward Europe. Both at this time and three days later ( Fig. 5d ), the vector F is slightly diffluent between Europe and Iceland. The RWP seems to interact with the larger-scale ridge over central and eastern Europe, which implies that the RWP is losing wave activity to the background flow or by dissipation. At the same time, a significant fraction of the wave activity is being transferred to the subtropical jet over the Mediterranean with

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Hilke S. Lentink, Christian M. Grams, Michael Riemer, and Sarah C. Jones

gradual development, the transformation stage ( Klein et al. 2000 ; Ritchie and Elsberry 2001 ) can be divided into three phases with the following key elements. The TC first encounters a decrease of intensity due to lower sea surface temperatures (step 1); second, the vortex tilts by the influence of vertical wind shear by the midlatitude jet stream (step 2); and third, the interaction of the TC circulation with cold dry midlatitude air north of the baroclinic zone induces a frontal structure (step

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Marlene Baumgart, Michael Riemer, Volkmar Wirth, Franziska Teubler, and Simon T. K. Lang

-0315.1 Moncrieff , M. W. , D. E. Waliser , and J. Caughey , 2012 : Progress and direction in tropical convection research: YOTC International Science Symposium . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 93 , ES65 – ES69 , https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00253.1 . 10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00253.1 Nie , Y. , Y. Zhang , G. Chen , and X.-Q. Yang , 2016 : Delineating the barotropic and baroclinic mechanisms in the midlatitude eddy-driven jet response to lower-tropospheric thermal forcing . J. Atmos. Sci

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