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Lei Song and Renguang Wu

of the East Asian trough. The southeastward flow to the rear of the East Asian trough favors the southward intrusion of cold air, leading to the invasion of cold events to eastern China ( Zhang et al. 1997 ; Jeong and Ho 2005 ; Takaya and Nakamura 2005a , b ; Bueh et al. 2011 ; Song et al. 2016 ; Song and Wu 2017 ). The development of the Siberian high and the East Asian trough is closely related to the Rossby wave trains propagating along the polar front jet and the subtropical jet

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Chen Li, Jing-Jia Luo, and Shuanglin Li

: Influence of El Niño Modoki on spring rainfall over south China . J. Geophys. Res. , 116 , D13102 , doi: 10.1029/2010JD015160 . 10.1029/2010JD015160 Findlater , J. , 1966 : Cross-equatorial jet streams at low levels over Kenya . Meteor. Mag. , 95 , 353 – 364 . Fu , C. , H. Diaz , and J. Fletcher , 1986 : Characteristics of the response of sea surface temperature in the central Pacific associated with warm episodes of the Southern Oscillation . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 114 , 1716 – 1739

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Ya Yang, Xiang Li, Jing Wang, and Dongliang Yuan

the equatorial and off-equatorial Rossby waves, have not been studied well. Existing studies (e.g., Meyers 1979 ; Qiu and Lukas 1996 ; Kessler 2006 ) used a 1.5-layer reduced gravity model to investigate the dynamics of the wind-forced low-frequency variability of the tropical Pacific Ocean circulation. In particular, Qiu et al. (2013) used a 1.5-layer ocean circulation model forced with annual cycle winds to produce alternating zonal jets in the Pacific basin. The dynamics are suggested to

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Chen Li, Jing-Jia Luo, Shuanglin Li, Harry Hendon, Oscar Alves, and Craig MacLachlan

-00072.1 . 10.1175/WAF-D-12-00072.1 Dee , D. P. , and Coauthors , 2011 : The ERA-Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 137 , 553 – 597 , . 10.1002/qj.828 Findlater , J. , 1966 : Cross-equatorial jet streams at low levels over Kenya . Meteor. Mag. , 95 , 353 – 364 . Findlater , J. , 1969 : A major low-level air current near the Indian Ocean during the northern summer . Quart. J. Roy

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James H. Ruppert Jr., Xingchao Chen, and Fuqing Zhang

Plateau during the warm season ( Wang et al. 2004 ; Bao et al. 2011 ), and likewise for many other continental regions downstream of mountain ranges (e.g., Laing et al. 2008 ). Many studies have argued that a key driver of this phenomenon is the mountain–plains solenoidal circulation ( Carbone and Tuttle 2008 ; Huang et al. 2010 ; Sun and Zhang 2012 ; Bao and Zhang 2013 ), and the nocturnal low-level jet in the case of the United States ( Stensrud 1996 ; Trier et al. 2014 ). These mechanisms

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Yan Zhu, Tim Li, Ming Zhao, and Tomoe Nasuno

, . 10.1175/2010JCLI3833.1 Jiang , X. , and Coauthors , 2015 : Vertical structure and physical processes of the Madden–Julian oscillation: Exploring key model physics in climate simulations . J. Geophys. Res. , 120 , 4718 – 4748 , . 10.1002/2014JD022375 Kang , W. , and E. Tziperman , 2018 : The MJO-SSW teleconnection: Interaction between MJO-forced waves and the midlatitude jet . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 45

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See Yee Lim, Charline Marzin, Prince Xavier, Chih-Pei Chang, and Bertrand Timbal

westerly south of the equator ( Fig. 3b ). This low-level jet-like configuration results from the combined influences of the orientation and narrowing of the SCS toward the equator and the effects of a dynamic response to periodic midlatitude pressure forcing that behave like a dispersive group of equatorial Rossby meridional modes under surge conditions ( Chang et al. 2016 ). The southward intrusion of the higher MSLP and associated colder SST from northern SEA are conspicuous ( Fig. 3c ). Fig . 2

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Wei-Ting Chen, Shih-Pei Hsu, Yuan-Huai Tsai, and Chung-Hsiung Sui

://<0463:SAIVOA>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0442(1998)011<0463:SAIVOA>2.0.CO;2 Yanase , A. , K. Yasunaga , and H. Masunaga , 2017 : Relationship between the direction of diurnal rainfall migration and the ambient wind over the southern Sumatra Island . Earth Space Sci. , 4 , 117 – 127 , . 10.1002/2016EA000181 Yang , S. , K. M. Lau , and K. M. Kim , 2002 : Variations of the East Asian jet stream and Asian

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Shijian Hu, Ying Zhang, Ming Feng, Yan Du, Janet Sprintall, Fan Wang, Dunxin Hu, Qiang Xie, and Fei Chai

( Nyadjro and Subrahmanyam 2016 ). Salinity and barrier-layer thickness in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean show energetic subseasonal variation related to the Madden–Julian oscillations ( Drushka et al. 2014 ; Li et al. 2015 ). In the northern Indian Ocean, interannual variability of the Wyrtki jet and Bay of Bengal circulation exerts significant influence on salinity anomalies through freshwater exchange between the Bay of Bengal and the rest of the equatorial Indian Ocean that may be influenced

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