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P. Berloff, I. Kamenkovich, and J. Pedlosky

1. Introduction The principal phenomenon studied in this paper is the existence of multiple, alternating zonal jets in the oceans. The observational evidence of these jets emerged mostly over the last few years, and their theoretical understanding is incomplete. In this introduction we pose the problem, discuss the background, and describe the ocean model. The phenomenology of the modeled jets is described in section 2 . Section 3 focuses on the kinematical analysis, section 4 on the

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Anthony C. Didlake Jr. and Robert A. Houze Jr.

-level observations and radar reflectivity data, which are insufficient for a complete kinematic description. More complete observations of the secondary eyewall are needed in order to highlight important processes that govern the overall dynamics of this feature and to ensure that models are accurately simulating eyewall replacement cycles for the correct reasons. During the Hurricane Rainband and Intensity Change Experiment (RAINEX; Houze et al. 2006 , 2007 ) in 2005, high-resolution aircraft observations of

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Aleksi Nummelin, Stephen Jeffress, and Thomas Haine

1. Introduction Sea surface temperature (SST) varies at different time and space scales, and these variations have been linked to the variability in several climate and environmental phenomena ( Deser et al. 2010 ). In addition, the SST data provide valuable information on surface ocean kinematics as it is observed at high spatial and temporal resolution. It is therefore of interest to characterize SST variability and to use the SST data to characterize ocean kinematics. To this end we develop

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Katja Friedrich, David E. Kingsmill, Cyrille Flamant, Hanne V. Murphey, and Roger M. Wakimoto

al. 1995 ; Fovell 2005 ), and drylines (e.g., Fujita 1970 ; Koch and McCarthy 1982 ; Schaefer 1986 ; Hane et al. 1997 ; Murphey et al. 2006 ) have received the largest amount of attention in terms of documenting their kinematic and moisture characteristics for convective weather forecasting applications. Precipitating cold fronts, particularly those associated with narrow cold frontal rainbands, have been examined in this context as well (e.g., James and Browning 1979 ; Hobbs and Persson

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Ben Jong-Dao Jou, Wen-Chau Lee, Su-Ping Liu, and Yu-Cheng Kao

not fall on the line segment connecting the two peak velocities of the dipole, which increases the complexity of accurately identifying the center in operational setting. Based on the rotational characteristics of a vortex, Lee et al. (1999) formulated a single-Doppler wind retrieval methodology, called the ground-based velocity track display (GBVTD), to retrieve the primary kinematic structures of atmospheric vortices ( Lee et al. 2000 ; Roux et al. 2004 ; Bluestein et al. 2003 ; Harasti et

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Katja Friedrich, David E. Kingsmill, Cyrille Flamant, Hanne V. Murphey, and Roger M. Wakimoto

1. Introduction Over the years many studies have focused on investigating processes that play a major role in cloud development and convection initiation along boundary layer convergence lines (also referred to as boundaries) for the purpose of improving storm forecasts and quantitative precipitation estimation. Large temporal variations of kinematic and moisture structures in the vertical and horizontal dimensions were found to make precise forecasts of when and where convection initiates

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Christopher A. Davis and Stanley B. Trier

developing circulations was largely unaddressed. The present study adds to previous work by providing both kinematic and thermodynamic data that resolve the MCV, including tilts and asymmetries, and by depicting its environment. The present paper focuses on the observed kinematic and thermodynamic structure of five mature MCVs. In a companion paper ( Trier and Davis 2007 , hereafter Part II of this study), we will analyze how variations in vertical and horizontal motions influence convection within the

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James N. Marquis, Yvette P. Richardson, and Joshua M. Wurman

task because it highlights those environments most conducive to strong vortices. The goal of this study is to provide unique observations regarding the kinematics and evolution of both individual and entire populations of misocyclones, with the hope that this knowledge will aid in our understanding of the role misocyclones play in CI and NSTs. We utilize radar-derived wind fields to address the following: the kinematic structure of the IHOP misocyclones and their near environments, the mergers of

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Brenda Dolan and Steven A. Rutledge

-Doppler coverage areas. Furthermore, the dual-polarization capabilities of IP1 can be used to estimate bulk hydrometeor types in order to study microphysical processes. The additional sensitivity of the specific differential phase at X-band aids in correcting attenuation (e.g., Park et al. 2005 ), and brings the possibility of phase-based rain-rate estimation to lighter rain rates (e.g., Matrosov et al. 2002 , 2006 ). IP1 therefore provides an opportunity to study storm morphology, kinematics, microphysics

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Matthew Sitkowski and Gary M. Barnes

subsidence warming in the eye, and convective outbreaks in the eyewall are all factors that can contribute to RI. b. Questions The nearly identical sampling on each day provides an excellent opportunity to document the changes of a hurricane’s inner core in the lower troposphere as it deepens from 954 to 929 hPa. GPS sonde data are used to create lower-tropospheric (10–4000 m) composite thermodynamic and kinematic fields for each day. The radar data are used to document changes in eyewall shape, echo

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