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Rezaul Mahmood, Roger A. Pielke Sr., and Clive A. McAlpine

Observational and modeling studies clearly demonstrate that land-use and land-cover change (LULCC) (e.g., Fig. 1 ) plays an important biogeophysical and biogeochemical role in the climate system from the landscape to regional and even continental scales ( Foley et al. 2005 ; Pielke et al. 2011 ; Brovkin et al. 2013 ; Luyssaert et al. 2014 ; Mahmood et al. 2014 ). The biogeochemical effect on the carbon budget is well recognized in both the scientific and policy-making communities. The

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Thomas R. Loveland and Rezaul Mahmood

Sustained assessment of the climatic impacts of land use and land cover change is essential. Land use and land cover change (LULCC) plays an important role in the climate system. Many studies have documented the impacts of LULCC on local, regional, and global climate. The National Climate Assessment Report ( Melillo et al. 2014 ) identifies LULCC as a “cross cutting” issue of future climate change studies. This report, and the previous U.S. Climate Change Science Program strategic plan (2003

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Menglin Jin

Using satellite remote sensing techniques to take quantitative observations of the climate system will advance our knowledge and ability to model the climate system and its changes. Polar-orbiting satellite records of global land surface skin temperature (LST) observations have high coverage and quality. Although limited in accuracy, and to a few years in length, these measurements are extremely useful because they are improvements on existing data.

This paper introduces a global, long-duration satellite diurnal cycle dataset of LST for 1981–98. LST measurements from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensors are generally only twice per day for most areas and suffer problems such as cloud contamination and orbital drift. These problems are corrected using the algorithms developed by Jin and Dickinson, Jin, and Jin and Treadon, and consequently provide a long-term, monthly, global 8-km land surface skin temperature diurnal cycle dataset (LSTD) for temporally consistent LST records.

As a unique and independent resource, LSTD is valuable for studying the land surface climate and for evaluating model performance. For the first time, in this paper, the diurnal, seasonal, and interannual variations of LST are presented as a prototype use of this dataset. In addition, LSTD is compared with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)-National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) reanalysis, in situ air temperature, the NOAA's Television Infrared Observation Satellite (TIROS) Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) observations, and shows encouraging consistencies on major features. These consistencies suggest that LSTD will be very valuable for climate change study.

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P. Michael Link, Tim Brücher, Martin Claussen, Jasmin S. A. Link, and Jürgen Scheffran

Northern Africa, especially the Sahel, is considered to be particularly vulnerable to climate change because of the region’s strong exposure to increasing temperature, higher precipitation variability, and extended population growth. Primary connectors between the climate system and the human societies in this region are land use and the associated land-cover changes, which mainly affect the areas where substantial subsistence farming occurs. This international workshop, 1 held at the Hotel

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Alexander A. Kokhanovsky and Gerrit de Leeuw

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Rezaul Mahmood, Roger A. Pielke Sr., Kenneth G. Hubbard, Dev Niyogi, Gordon Bonan, Peter Lawrence, Richard McNider, Clive McAlpine, Andres Etter, Samuel Gameda, Budong Qian, Andrew Carleton, Adriana Beltran-Przekurat, Thomas Chase, Arturo I. Quintanar, Jimmy O. Adegoke, Sajith Vezhapparambu, Glen Conner, Salvi Asefi, Elif Sertel, David R. Legates, Yuling Wu, Robert Hale, Oliver W. Frauenfeld, Anthony Watts, Marshall Shepherd, Chandana Mitra, Valentine G. Anantharaj, Souleymane Fall, Robert Lund, Anna Treviño, Peter Blanken, Jinyang Du, Hsin-I Chang, Ronnie Leeper, Udaysankar S. Nair, Scott Dobler, Ravinesh Deo, and Jozef Syktus
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Mathias W. Rotach, Georg Wohlfahrt, Armin Hansel, Matthias Reif, Johannes Wagner, and Alexander Gohm

The incorporation of mesoscale circulations would increase the accuracy of global (or regional) atmospheric carbon budget models—A finding that calls for more much-needed research. Anthropogenic activities, such as combustion of fossil fuels plus cement production and land use changes, result in large CO 2 emissions into Earth's atmosphere. The corresponding CO 2 emission values for the year 2011 are 9.5 ± 0.5 and 0.9 ± 0.5 PgC yr −1 , respectively ( Le Quéré et al. 2013 ). About half of the

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Kristi R. Arsenault, Shraddhanand Shukla, Abheera Hazra, Augusto Getirana, Amy McNally, Sujay V. Kumar, Randal D. Koster, Christa D. Peters-Lidard, Benjamin F. Zaitchik, Hamada Badr, Hahn Chul Jung, Bala Narapusetty, Mahdi Navari, Shugong Wang, David M. Mocko, Chris Funk, Laura Harrison, Gregory J. Husak, Alkhalil Adoum, Gideon Galu, Tamuka Magadzire, Jeanne Roningen, Michael Shaw, John Eylander, Karim Bergaoui, Rachael A. McDonnell, and James P. Verdin

Land Information System (LIS) team, the former providing state-of-the-art dynamical seasonal forecasts and the latter translating those forecasts into hydrologic forecasts with a state-of-the-art land surface modeling system. For successful transition of research to operations, engagement with end-users and regional expertise are essential. For NHyFAS, FEWS NET’s regional experts in Africa and the Middle East are receiving guidance about the products to help facilitate their use in operational

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Russell S. Vose, Derek Arndt, Viva F. Banzon, David R. Easterling, Byron Gleason, Boyin Huang, Ed Kearns, Jay H. Lawrimore, Matthew J. Menne, Thomas C. Peterson, Richard W. Reynolds, Thomas M. Smith, Claude N. Williams Jr., and David B. Wuertz

and the Climatic Research Unit (HadCRUT; Brohan et al. 2006 ). (Note that the Japan Meteorological Agency now has a global dataset, and land-only products are available from other groups, such as the Berkeley Earth Surface Temperature project.) In general, each group uses somewhat different input data and substantially different approaches. For instance, GISS makes extensive use of satellite data, NCDC only uses satellite data in a limited capacity, and HadCRUT uses no satellite data at all

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John T. Sullivan, Timothy Berkoff, Guillaume Gronoff, Travis Knepp, Margaret Pippin, Danette Allen, Laurence Twigg, Robert Swap, Maria Tzortziou, Anne M. Thompson, Ryan M. Stauffer, Glenn M. Wolfe, James Flynn, Sally E. Pusede, Laura M. Judd, William Moore, Barry D. Baker, Jay Al-Saadi, and Thomas J. McGee

(airborne, shipborne, and vehicular) observations connecting the two sites, pollutant gradients were directly observed and used to better understand the underlying fundamental processes occurring at the land–water interface. Fig . 1. Overview of OWLETS ground sites, mobile unit pathways, research cruise routes, and aircraft sorties. The research sites were integrated with a combination of remote sensing (profilers), surface analyzing, passive, and balloonborne instrumentation (see Table 1 ). To better

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