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Abel T. Woldemichael, Faisal Hossain, and Roger Pielke Sr.

(hereafter, “dams” will be used interchangeably with “artificial reservoirs”) are used for water supply ( International Commission on Large Dams 1999 ). However, applications also include irrigation for agriculture, flood control, hydropower, land navigation, and recreation. Past civilizations have used dams for their various intended purposes. To date, large numbers of dams have been constructed at different regions in the world that vary in their hydroclimatology and land features (topography). To meet

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Yan Zhang, James A. Smith, Lifeng Luo, Zifa Wang, and Mary Lynn Baeck

(USGS) land use–land cover classification are delineated by the black (gray) contours (bottom). The center points of each TRMM grid cell at 0.25° are shown (bottom). The paper is organized as follows. Section 2 describes all observational data used in this study and presents the observational analyses on the regional precipitation variability in the greater Beijing area. Section 3 then presents the numerical sensitivity study to examine the impacts of urban expansion on regional precipitation

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Don Cline, Simon Yueh, Bruce Chapman, Boba Stankov, Al Gasiewski, Dallas Masters, Kelly Elder, Richard Kelly, Thomas H. Painter, Steve Miller, Steve Katzberg, and Larry Mahrt

1. Introduction Airborne sensors provide many unique observing capabilities to help understand cold land processes. Aircraft platforms provide flexibility in data collection not generally found with spaceborne systems, improving opportunities for coordinating remote sensing observations with ground observations and for adapting to changing conditions. Seven airborne sensors ( Table 1 ) were used to observe the surface and near-surface of the study areas of the Cold Land Processes Experiment

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Tosiyuki Nakaegawa

use of land cover monitoring in land surface sciences. As a result, several 1-km global land cover datasets have been produced by multiple research institutions, generally with moderate-resolution optical sensor data. These global land cover datasets have been used for both global and regional studies because they cover all continents and islands with sufficient spatial resolution (1 km). However, comparative analysis of different land cover datasets showed per-pixel agreement of only about 0.6 (e

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Jamie Dyer

anthropogenic modification of spatial boundaries in land use/land cover through agricultural practices can have an influence on regional weather variability through these processes ( Brown and Arnold 1998 ). In addition, agricultural land use can influence the dynamics of the boundary layer through variations in surface roughness over the growing season, effectively modifying existing subsynoptic and mesoscale flow regimes by varying the intensity of turbulent mixing through the radix layer. The energy

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Liang Chen, Paul A. Dirmeyer, Ahmed Tawfik, and David M. Lawrence

1. Introduction The interaction between the land surface and atmosphere is an important element of the climate system. Land-use/land-cover changes (LULCCs) can modify the surface energy and water fluxes and can therefore affect climate at regional and broader scales. Within the land–atmosphere coupling “process chain” ( Santanello et al. 2011 ), the land surface affects precipitation by influencing planetary boundary layer (PBL) development thereby triggering and maintaining convection

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O. A. Tuinenburg, R. W. A. Hutjes, T. Stacke, A. Wiltshire, and P. Lucas-Picher

-scale irrigation in India. The effects of the large-scale land use changes in India on the atmosphere and especially on precipitation have been the subject of numerous studies. Generally, the increased moisture availability at the land surface is thought to result in two opposing atmospheric effects. On the one hand, the increased moisture influx into the atmosphere may increase the moist static energy of the atmosphere and, subsequently, the chances of convective precipitation. On the other hand, when the

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Xubin Zeng, Mike Barlage, Chris Castro, and Kelly Fling

rainfall provides information about the origin of the water molecules. In general, condensation depletes heavy isotope contents in rainfall as the air moves from ocean to land. Therefore, a small isotope gradient from ocean to continental interior might indicate a relatively large contribution of land surface E to P . While the isotope data are useful qualitatively, using them to quantify the land surface effect on local precipitation has large uncertainties because of the variability in isotope

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A. L. Hirsch, A. J. Pitman, and V. Haverd

–atmosphere coupling to model physics (e.g., Santanello et al. 2011 ; Hirsch et al. 2014b ). Research on land–atmosphere interactions commonly focuses on the influence of soil moisture variability on surface temperature. One of the most well-known methods of quantifying how the land surface affects the atmosphere in a climate model is the “coupling strength” approach introduced by Koster et al. (2004) . The first Global Land–Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (GLACE-1; Koster et al. 2006 ) used a methodology for

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Chunlei Meng, Chaolin Zhang, and Ronglin Tang

been implemented and tested ( Margulis et al. 2005 ; McLaughlin 2002 ; Sabater et al. 2007 ). Variational data assimilation algorithms can combine the advantages of in situ measurement, remote sensing, and model simulations, and these algorithms have been applied widely in recent years. Many studies have used variational data assimilation methods for assimilating land surface temperature (LST) and/or soil moisture data using the adjoint model to evaluate the cost function gradient, and various

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