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Mimi Stith, Alessandra Giannini, John del Corral, Susana Adamo, and Alex de Sherbinin

1950s and 1960s to persistent dry conditions in the 1970s and 1980s is, in magnitude and spatial extent, unparalleled globally in the instrumental record ( Nicholson 2000 ; Hulme 2001 ; Trenberth et al. 2007 ; Greene et al. 2009 ). During the early 1970s, meteorologists posited that the drying was the result of local human activity in a positive feedback loop between poor land use practices, land degradation, and atmospheric response ( Charney 1975 ). Predating acid rain and global warming, the

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Valeria Hernandez, Vincent Moron, Florencia Fossa Riglos, and Eugenia Muzi

according to different soils and land uses ( Slegers 2008 ). In Senegal, Mertz et al. (2009) found that farmers did not assign climate factors as the main reason for livelihood change. Nevertheless, they identified strong winds and occasional excessive rainfall as the most destructive climate factors. Similarly, in central-south Senegal, Tschakert (2007) showed that climate also did not directly appear in people’s risk assessments. In contrast, Thomas et al. (2007) demonstrated that trends and

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Randy A. Peppler

also said there are probably other indicators and would try to “get more information from my friends.” His response was used by Kerr as the basis for his 1951 letter-writing campaign, which also included a query about the existence of “weather prophets.” This paper examines the responses and explores the possible motivations of Senator Kerr—an influential oil man born in a log cabin in the Oklahoma Indian Territory in 1896—in seeking such information at a time when the U.S. Weather Bureau had

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Shannon M. McNeeley

rights to the land and the ability to manage tribal water rights ( Cozzetto et al. 2013 ; Chief et al. 2014 ; Gautam et al. 2013 ). Tribes have had to fight states in the courts to get the water rights (i.e., the legal right to use the water on their lands) that they were guaranteed under treaty laws. Many have framed this as a “climate justice” issue, where sovereignty and self-determination over their land and natural resources plays a central role in tribes’ ability to adapt to current and

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Daniel B. Ferguson, Anna Masayesva, Alison M. Meadow, and Michael A. Crimmins

. Temperatures also vary with topography and throughout the year, but the annual average high temperature for the reservation is about 68°F, with an annual average low temperature of about 37°F. The instrumental record for the region shows that droughts were common over the past 120 years, with a pronounced drought at the end of the nineteenth century and severe drought in the 1950s and early 1960s and again in the late 1990s through to the end of the record in 2015. c. Land use The 2012 U.S. Census of

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Susan A. Crate

transformation of massive Soviet-period state farms into several categories of state-subsidized agricultural enterprises ( Buckley 1995 ). Village authorities were to allocate use of land according to state norms, with first priority to peasant farming cooperatives, intended to produce a surplus for local markets, then to village reserve lands for emergency use, then to be divvied up among private households for subsistence production. Although in the post-Soviet period there have been discussions of

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Alison M. Meadow, Daniel B. Ferguson, Zack Guido, Alexandra Horangic, Gigi Owen, and Tamara Wall

problems effectively when the mode is appropriate to the particular question, context, and resources available. In the contractual mode, the research emphasis is on testing or verifying technology. Biggs’ (1989) term “contractual” refers to contracts between scientists and farmers for the use of land, services, and resources to test experimental technology under real-world conditions. It does not refer to situations in which stakeholders contract with scientists to answer stakeholder-driven questions

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Mathew Alexander Stiller-Reeve, David B. Stephenson, and Thomas Spengler

) datasets have the benefit of being available over land and ocean. OLR is also used because direct rainfall observations over many tropical regions are not very reliable. As OLR is a proxy for deep convection, OLR also acts as a proxy for monsoonal rainfall. Previously, researchers applied static thresholds to identify the monsoon onset using OLR data. In this study, we use interpolated OLR NOAA data ( Liebmann 1996 ), with a resolution of 2.5°, which we interpolated to 0.25°. The data were provided by

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Lynda E. Chambers, Roan D. Plotz, Siosinamele Lui, Faapisa Aiono, Tile Tofaeono, David Hiriasia, Lloyd Tahani, ‘Ofa Fa’anunu, Seluvaia Finaulahi, and Albert Willy

for some countries and regions, for example, Australia ( Mondragón 2014 ; ; ), there remain significant gaps in where these calendars occur and in the level of detail provided. Differences between calendars can include the number of seasons into which the year is divided and the plants and animals used to mark the change of seasons. National Meteorological Services (NMSs) in

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Oluwatoyin Dare Kolawole, Moseki Ronald Motsholapheko, Barbara Ntombi Ngwenya, Olekae Thakadu, Gagoitseope Mmopelwa, and Donald Letsholo Kgathi

Change, Smallholders and Traditional Farming Communities . Environment and Development Series, Vol. 6, Third World Network, 63 pp . Bates, B. C. , Kundzewicz Z. W. , Wu S. , and Palutikof J. P. , Eds., 2008 : Climate change and water. IPCC Tech. Paper VI, 214 pp. [Available online at .] Bendsen, H. , 2003 : The dynamics of land use systems in Ngamiland: Changing livelihood options and strategies. University of Botswana

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