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James N. Moum, Simon P. de Szoeke, William D. Smyth, James B. Edson, H. Langley DeWitt, Aurélie J. Moulin, Elizabeth J. Thompson, Christopher J. Zappa, Steven A. Rutledge, Richard H. Johnson, and Christopher W. Fairall

). Shortly after 1000 UTC, temperature traces show a narrowband oscillation of alternating cool and warm fluid. The period, 3–4 min, is consistent with velocity signals measured by Doppler sonar. This oscillatory motion suggests the presence of Langmuir circulations, which reach to the base of the mixed layer, entrain fluid from there, and bring it to the surface. Langmuir circulations are a unique sea surface cooling mechanism not directly included in our measurements of subsurface turbulent heat flux

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Kunio Yoneyama, Chidong Zhang, and Charles N. Long

is the only large tropical ocean that is bounded by land in three directions. It is therefore the ocean that experiences the strongest influence of the monsoons. The monsoon circulation and the trade winds over the Indian Ocean induce unusually shallow thermocline in the middle of the basin, known as the Seychelles–Chagos thermocline ridge ( Vialard et al. 2009 ), and strong eastward surface current along the equator, the Wyrtki jet, which appears semiannually during the monsoon transition

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Sue Chen, Maria Flatau, Tommy G. Jensen, Toshiaki Shinoda, Jerome Schmidt, Paul May, James Cummings, Ming Liu, Paul E. Ciesielski, Christopher W. Fairall, Ren-Chieh Lien, Dariusz B. Baranowski, Nan-Hsun Chi, Simon de Szoeke, and James Edson

sigma levels wherein 20 levels were assigned within the lowest 2 km of the atmosphere. The Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM; Martin 2000 ) is run using a horizontal resolution of 12 km with 60 sigma- z vertical layers. A fine vertical spacing (0.5 m) is used in the upper 10 m to resolve the large diurnal warming features ( Shinoda et al. 2013 ). The vertical mixing is modified to include Stokes drift currents provided by a wave model and effects of Langmuir circulations ( Smith et al. 2013 ). d

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