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Brandon G. Reichl, Isaac Ginis, Tetsu Hara, Biju Thomas, Tobias Kukulka, and Dong Wang

commonly used in ocean circulation models perform relative to an explicit scheme? As discussed earlier, the mean Langmuir turbulence impacts can be included in an implicit manner by tuning the critical Richardson number used in the KPP [KPP-iLT, see section 2a(1) ]. The computational requirements of a surface wave model are not nominal, so the explicit Langmuir turbulence scheme is more costly to employ. Therefore, we aim to determine whether the explicit scheme improves the hurricane upper

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CONRAD P. MOOK, EUGENE W. HOOVER, and ROBERT A. HOOVER

reports did notgive a complete enough picture, so that in the annals ofment of the Army, Washington 25, D. C.I Present affiliation: Diamond Ordnance Fuze Laboratories, Ordnancc Corps, Depart-"-..*.. ..... . .. . . . . ..-I-.-... +-::* .......,~80'+IS*75' 70'8FIGURE 1.-Solid track is the path of the hurricane of October10-16,1947, as presented by Langmuir [l]. Note the dashedcircle outlining the "approximate area of the clouds of the hurri-cane" at the time of seeding (1138-1208 E S T ). (This figure

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THE WEATHER AND CIRCULATION OF MARCH 1954

A COOL MARCH WITH A 6-DAY PERIODICITY

HARRY F. HAWKINS JR.

years (193340)These data may provide a little more evidence to thoseseeking long-term periodic fluctuations in weather.Inspection of the outstanding sequences obviously sug-I See Charts I-XV following p. 96 for analyzed climatological data for the month.gests a possible oscillation with a period of the order of 30years. This may be related to the historic Bruckner cycle[SI (35 years), but the substantiation of any such con-nection is beyond the scope of this article.GENERAL CIRCULATION

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GRIFFITH M. MORGAN JR.

ofmotion of the different components of the precipitationsize spectrum at each point in the cloud. Growth of par-ticles is specified as a linear increase of fall speed with time,sawtooth fashion for liquid drops (to simulate the spon-taneous breakup responsible for the Langmuir chain reac-tion), and continuous for hail particles.The results of trajectory calculations show: (1) that inthe region of the balance points of large raindrops (diam-eter=3-5 mm) the drop trajectories are of an indefinitely

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Bin Liu, Huiqing Liu, Lian Xie, Changlong Guan, and Dongliang Zhao

effects of wave state and sea spray; 2) wave-enhanced upper-ocean mixing attributable to wave breaking ( Craig and Banner 1994 ); 3) modifying upper-ocean currents through radiation stress ( Longuet-Higgins and Stewart 1962 ); 4) wave-enhanced bottom stress attributable to wave orbital velocity (especially under shallow water conditions); 5) wave-induced Coriolis–Stokes forcing changing upper-ocean current structure ( Polton et al. 2005 ); 6) Langmuir circulation generated through the instability

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THE WEATHER AND CIRCULATION OF MAY 1952

Including a Study of Some Recent Periodicities

H. F. HAWKINS Jr.

82 MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW MAY 1952THE WEATHER AND CIRCULATION OF MAY 1952'Including a Study of Some Recent PeriodicitiesH. F. HAWKINS, Jr.Extended Forecast Sedfon, U. S. Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C.GENERAL CIRCULATION CHARACTERISTICSThe mean circulation pattern for May 1952 was char-acterized by low zonal index and blocking activity fromcentral Europe westward through North America. Theseconditions were accompanied by a large area of persist-ently above-normal 700-mb. heights extending

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H. E. LANDSBERG, J. M. MITCHELL JR., and H. L. CRUTCHER

theoretical models of the general cir-culation (Smagorinsky [31] ) .Somewhatoverlooked in recent years have been thesuggestions that the arrangement of the subtropical anti-cyclones indicates fairly stable vort,icity concentrations,which in turn could produce periodic oscillations (Stewart[32] ) . Rough estimates of the normal modes of suchoscillations give the wide brackets of 2,000 to 5,000 daysand 70,000 to 250,000 days. The arrangement of the fixedgeographical features of the earth also suggests that

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Steven M. Hunter, Terry J. Schuur, Thomas C. Mapshall, and W. David Rust

. Geophys. Res., 94, 13 151-13 167.Winn, W. P., C. B. Moore, C. R. Holmes, and L. G. Byerley III, 1978: A thunderstorm on July 16, 1975, over Langmuir Lab oratory: A case study. J. Geophys. Res., 83, 3080-3092. , ---, and , 1981: Electric field structure in an active part of a small, isolated thundercloud. J. Geophys. Res., 86, 1187 1193.Zipser, E., 1977: Mesoscale and convective-scale downdrafts as distinct components of squall-line circulation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 105, 1568-1589.--, 1988

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YOSHIMITSU OGURA and TSUTOMU TAKAHASHI

present time, however, thereis no completely accept,ed explanation.As soon as some raindrops have been produced by uuto-conversion or coalescence, raindrops begin to fall withdifferent velocilies depending upon their sizes. In thecourse of this fall, they are envisaged to collect clouddroplets through the continuous collection process de-scribed by Langmuir (1948). The rate of growth of anindividual drop by this process is proportional to themixing ratio of cloud droplets.On the other hand, we know

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Tommy R. Shepherd, W. David Rust, and Thomas C. Marshall

, 1993: Mesovortex circulations seen by air borne Doppler radar within a bow-echo mesoscale convective system. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 74, 2146-2157.Knight, C. A., 1979: Observations of the morphology of melting snow. J. A tmos. Sci., 36, 1123-1130.Marshall, T. C., and W. D. Rust, 1991: Electric field soundings through thunderstorms. J. Geophys. Res., 96, 22 297-22 306.---, and --, 1993: Two types of vertical electrical structures in stratiform precipitation regmns of mesoscale convective

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