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Jie Peng, Zhanqing Li, Hua Zhang, Jianjun Liu, and Maureen Cribb

methodology used in the study. Results are presented in section 3 , and conclusions are given in section 4 . 2. Data and methodology Four years (2007–10) of cloud data ( NASA CloudSat Project 2007 ) from the CloudSat and the Cloud–Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations ( CALIPSO ) satellites and aerosol data ( NASA Goddard Space Flight Center 2008 ) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the Aqua platform over the global tropics (20°N–20°S) are

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Tianmeng Chen, Jianping Guo, Zhanqing Li, Chuanfeng Zhao, Huan Liu, Maureen Cribb, Fu Wang, and Jing He

nonmonotonic response of clouds and radiation to changes in aerosols ( Stevens and Feingold 2009 ). ACI has been studied for different cloud regimes such as midlatitude stratus clouds over land from in situ aircraft observations ( Feingold et al. 2003 ), Arctic stratus clouds from ground remote sensing observations ( Garrett et al. 2004 ; Garrett and Zhao 2006 ), stratocumulus clouds over the eastern Pacific Ocean from airborne field campaigns ( Ackerman et al. 2004 ; Twohy et al. 2005 ), warm cumulus

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Jiwen Fan, Yuan Wang, Daniel Rosenfeld, and Xiaohong Liu

warm clouds with very low N d can invigorate them and enhances their vertical development, leading to taller clouds, larger cloud water content, and enhanced rain rates ( Yuan et al. 2011b ; Christensen and Stephens 2011 , 2012 ; Y.-C. Chen et al. 2015 ). Yuan et al. (2011b) analyzed satellite data and showed a significant increased cloud amount by volcanic aerosols for trade wind cumuli. Satellite observations from the Cloud–Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) instrument

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Jianjun Liu, Zhanqing Li, and Maureen Cribb

reach cloud tops and interact with cloud droplets. Because DER retrievals from MODIS are typically representative of cloud particle sizes near the top of optically thick clouds ( Chang and Li 2002 , 2003 ), satellite-retrieved DER is more affected ( Su et al. 2010 ). Radar-retrieved DER data represent layer-mean particle sizes. Based on five years of Cloud–Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations measurements, Huang et al. (2013) showed that aerosol extinction coefficients

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