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Don Cline, Simon Yueh, Bruce Chapman, Boba Stankov, Al Gasiewski, Dallas Masters, Kelly Elder, Richard Kelly, Thomas H. Painter, Steve Miller, Steve Katzberg, and Larry Mahrt

approximately 1280 m above ground level (AGL) via airborne lidar, normalized to ground controls and processed to remove noise and redundancies ( Corbley 2003 ). The elevation observations have approximately 1.5-m horizontal spacing and approximately 0.05-m vertical tolerances. The pixel size of the orthophotographs is 0.15 m. The snow-free and snow-covered elevation data with the orthoimagery provide detailed information about the distribution of snow depth in relation to vegetation distribution and height

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Jeffrey S. Deems, Steven R. Fassnacht, and Kelly J. Elder

s −1 ; (d) Alpine, winds during or within 1 day of precipitation events. Fig . 4. Daily SWE observations from (a) Rabbit Ears and (b) Berthoud Pass Summit SNOTEL sites. Fig . 5. Daily snow depth observations collected at micrometeorological stations near the center of each study site, (a) Walton Creek and (b) Alpine. Vertical lines indicate dates of lidar data acquisition: dashed line is 2005 and dotted line is 2003. Fig . 6. Snow depth histograms for (a) Walton Creek and (b) Alpine. Fig . 7

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Jicheng Liu, Curtis E. Woodcock, Rae A. Melloh, Robert E. Davis, Ceretha McKenzie, and Thomas H. Painter

effects of within-crown gaps. This paper also explores the effect of the density of field samples and the ability to use airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) data for parameter estimation for discrete object models like the GO and GORT models. 2. Description of the GORT model The hybrid geometrical optical–radiative transfer model is a canopy directional reflectance model that evolved from the GO model of Li and Strahler (1992) and includes the effects of within-crown gaps, given the foliage

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Richard Essery, Peter Bunting, Aled Rowlands, Nick Rutter, Janet Hardy, Rae Melloh, Tim Link, Danny Marks, and John Pomeroy

comparison with ground-based measurements, to investigate the spatial and temporal scaling of subcanopy radiation statistics, and to develop parameterizations of those statistics. Data from aerial photography and lidar (light detection and ranging) scanning of a coniferous forest with areas of varying canopy density and uniformity are used, as described in the next section. Crowns are delineated in the photograph to map the location and crown diameter of each tree, and tree heights are assigned from

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John Pomeroy, Chad Ellis, Aled Rowlands, Richard Essery, Janet Hardy, Tim Link, Danny Marks, and Jean Emmanuel Sicart

. 1975 ), productivity ( Eagleson 2002 ), and stage of succession ( Ross et al. 1986 ; Parker et al. 2002 ). It is possible to link the canopy transmittance of shortwave radiation to laser remote sensing observations of forest structure ( Parker et al. 2002 ). For discontinuous stands, shortwave irradiance into gaps and the north edge of gaps (in the Northern Hemisphere) is much greater than that under more shaded parts of the canopy ( Satterlund 1983 ). The previously cited literature suggests the

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