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Scott A. Braun, Paul A. Newman, and Gerald M. Heymsfield

understanding of the processes that cause it, insufficient sampling of appropriate observations of the storm environment and internal processes, and inadequate representation of those processes in models ( Rogers et al. 2006 ). For 5 weeks in each of the hurricane seasons of 2012–14, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) conducted airborne campaigns using high-altitude long-duration unmanned airborne systems (UASs) to investigate the processes that underlie hurricane formation and

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Zhining Tao, Scott A. Braun, Jainn J. Shi, Mian Chin, Dongchul Kim, Toshihisa Matsui, and Christa D. Peters-Lidard

, and section 5 summarizes the analysis of the observations and simulations. Conclusions are provided in section 6 . 2. Data and NU-WRF Data from CPL and dropsondes collected during the HS3 campaign are utilized for this study. CPL is a multiwavelength backscatter lidar that measures the optical and radiative properties of cirrus clouds and aerosols ( McGill and Hlavka 2015 ). The AVAPS system carries up to 88 dropsondes that provide high vertical resolution (2-Hz sampling) profiles of

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E. P. Nowottnick, P. R. Colarco, S. A. Braun, D. O. Barahona, A. da Silva, D. L. Hlavka, M. J. McGill, and J. R. Spackman

.1175/1520-0442(2003)016<3617:TROEWO>2.0.CO;2 Karyampudi , V. M. , and Coauthors , 1999 : Validation of the Saharan dust plume conceptual model using lidar, Meteosat, and ECMWF data . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 80 , 1045 – 1076 ,<1045:VOTSDP>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0477(1999)080<1045:VOTSDP>2.0.CO;2 Kiladis , G. N. , C. D. Thorncroft , and N. M. J. Hall , 2006 : Three-dimensional structure and dynamics of African easterly waves. Part I: Observations . J. Atmos. Sci

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Erin B. Munsell, Jason A. Sippel, Scott A. Braun, Yonghui Weng, and Fuqing Zhang

this period in terms of both track and intensity. The examination of this stage of Nadine’s lifetime also benefits from extensive observations taken during the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) mission, which are compared to the simulations in order to develop a better understanding of Nadine’s behavior. Nadine developed from a tropical wave that emerged from the African coast on 7 September ( Brown 2013 ). The disturbance was

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Alan Brammer, Chris D. Thorncroft, and Jason P. Dunion

operating altitude (~16.7–19.8 km), the Global Hawk was able to collect in situ observations from the lower stratosphere to the ocean surface in tropical systems as far east as around 30°W. Given the uncertainty regarding the influence of the SAL or other sources of dry air (e.g., midlatitude dry air intrusions; Dunion 2011 ) on developing disturbances, this platform provided a unique opportunity to observe potential cyclogenesis events over the eastern Atlantic. This paper documents the evolution and

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