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S.-E. Gryning, E. Batchvarova, and R. Floors

using long-term observations . Renewable Energy , 20 ( 2 ), 145 – 153 . Nakanishi , M. , 2001 : Improvement of the Mellor–Yamada turbulence closure model based on large-eddy simulation data . Bound.-Layer Meteor. , 99 , 349 – 378 . O’Connor , E. J. , A. J. Illingworth , I. M. Brooks , C. D. Westbrook , R. J. Hogan , F. Davies , and B. J. Brooks , 2010 : A method for estimating the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate from a vertically pointing Doppler lidar, and

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David Schlipf, Po Wen Cheng, and Jakob Mann

1. Introduction Lidar systems are able to provide information about the wind field approaching a wind turbine in advance, which can be used to assist wind turbine control. This field of investigations has increased significantly in recent years, and several controllers for load reduction or energy yield increase have been tested in simulations (see, e.g., Laks et al. 2010 ; Dunne et al. 2012 ; Schlipf et al. 2013b ; Koerber and King 2011 ; Henriksen 2011 ; Kragh et al. 2013 ). The latest

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Andreas Rettenmeier, David Schlipf, Ines Würth, and Po Wen Cheng

additional remote sensing device—for example, a sodar or a lidar system—installed on the ground as a supplement to a meteorological mast. This remote sensing device is able to measure the wind speed across the whole rotor area up to tip height and is able to take shear effects into account ( Wagner 2010 ). It will be used for future power performance testing on flat terrain, as this approach is fed into the revision of the current standard. Using a scanning lidar, horizontally mounted on the nacelle of a

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Jacob Berg, Jakob Mann, and Edward G. Patton

1. Introduction Wind lidars have significantly matured over the last few decades ( Emeis et al. 2007 ). Their strength for measuring the mean vertical wind profile up to hundreds of meters is obvious ( Peña et al. 2009 , 2010 ). Measuring turbulent second-order statistics with wind lidars has been done extensively ( Gal-Chen et al. 1992 ; Frehlich and Cornman 2002 ; Lothon et al. 2009 ; Pichugina et al. 2008 ) and careful comparisons with mast-mounted sonic anemometers have been carried out

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Mikael Sjöholm, Nikolas Angelou, Per Hansen, Kasper Hjorth Hansen, Torben Mikkelsen, Steinar Haga, Jon Arne Silgjerd, and Neil Starsmore

WindScanner research infrastructure consists of both continuous-wave short-range and pulsed long-range remote sensing wind lidar systems. The short-range WindScanner technology is based on a coherent continuous-wave wind lidar instrument—that is, a ZephIR 150 manufactured by Natural Power (Malvern, United Kingdom), which is designed based on the principles outlined in Karlsson et al. (2000) , although it has been modified according to the description below. For agile beam scanning, a patented double

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Vasily Lyulyukin, Rostislav Kouznetsov, and Margarita Kallistratova

atmosphere. KHB are revealed by sodar, radar, and lidar under conditions of statical stability in the presence of strong vertical shear of wind velocity. Examples of KHB observations in the lower and middle atmosphere can be found in the monograph Gossard and Hooke (2003) , as well as in reviews in DeSilva et al. (1996) and Fukao et al. (2011) and references therein. Radar observations of KHB in the free atmosphere are numerous, but in the lowest atmosphere only a small number of KHB events (a

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Stuart Bradley

, with emphasis on Doppler processing, rather than the effects of spatial separation of their beams. Contini et al. (2006) consider ultrasonic anemometers, with some interesting observations about spatial separation of sensors, but the scales and other considerations are different from those of sodars. Contini et al. (2007) show improvements from one sodar over another if all acoustic beams are transmitted simultaneously, but the comparison is between two very different sodar systems. Other works

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Margarita A. Kallistratova, Rostislav D. Kouznetsov, Valerii F. Kramar, and Dmitrii D. Kuznetsov

1. Introduction Variances of velocity components can be measured in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) with any Doppler device, such as sodar, lidar, and radar. Being the simplest characteristics of turbulence, variances are widely used in the evaluation of wind energy resources and in air pollution meteorology. Experimental data on the variances are especially desired for stable ABLs because of the difficulties in theoretical description and numerical simulations of stably stratified

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Valery F. Kramar, Evgeniya Baykova, Margarita Kallistratova, Rostislav Kouznetsov, and Sergei Kulichkov

in the ABL ( Kallistratova 1994 ; Emeis et al. 2007 ). Sodar-derived vertical velocities also provide a measure of convection intensity. For urban measurements, sodar has advantages over radar and lidar wind profilers. Unlike radar, it is not necessary to allocate an electromagnetic band for sodar, and relative to low-power lidar a sodar has a greater height range (higher-power lidar has greater range but requires further governmental approval). Moreover, the cost of a sodar unit is typically

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C. R. Wood, R. D. Kouznetsov, R. Gierens, A. Nordbo, L. Järvi, M. A. Kallistratova, and J. Kukkonen

Beyrich F. , 2009 : Developments in scintillometry . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 90 , 694 – 698 . Monin, A. S. , and Yaglom A. M. , 2007 : Statistical Fluid Mechanics: Mechanics of Turbulence. Vol. 2. Dover Publications, 896 pp. National Land Survey of Finland , cited 2010 : Lidar scanning database PaITuli. [Available online at www.csc.fi/paituli .] Nordbo, A. , Järvi L. , and Vesala T. , 2012 : Revised eddy covariance flux calculation methodologies—Effect on urban energy balance

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