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Qian Cao, Thomas H. Painter, William Ryan Currier, Jessica D. Lundquist, and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

comparisons with radar rainfall estimates (e.g., Stampoulis et al. 2013 ; Gebregiorgis et al. 2017 ), gauge observations (e.g., Mei et al. 2014 ; Prat and Nelson 2015 ; Miao et al. 2015 ), and merged radar and gauge rainfall estimates such as the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Stage IV ( Lin and Mitchell 2005 ) products (e.g., Gourley et al. 2010 ; Mehran and AghaKouchak 2014 ). Radar precipitation estimates are subject to errors from, for example, radar calibration, beam

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William Ryan Currier, Theodore Thorson, and Jessica D. Lundquist

, snow course observations, and lidar, described in section 3 ). We used these observations to evaluate the ability of PRISM and a high-resolution (4/3 km) atmospheric model simulation (WRF; Mass et al. 2003 ) to determine frozen precipitation throughout water year (WY) 2016 and during individual storm events (focused on the OLYMPEX intensive observational period from November to December 2015). This paper is organized as follows. Section 2 provides background information on previous evaluations

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Mircea Grecu, Lin Tian, Gerald M. Heymsfield, Ali Tokay, William S. Olson, Andrew J. Heymsfield, and Aaron Bansemer

1. Introduction Estimates of precipitation derived from single-frequency radar observations are inherently uncertain. This is because to express accurately the distribution of the number of precipitation particles in an observation volume as a function of their sizes more than one variable is necessary, whereas single-frequency radars provide only one reflectivity observation per volume. Solid precipitation is characterized by an additional type of significant uncertainty stemming from the fact

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Robert A. Houze Jr., Lynn A. McMurdie, Walter A. Petersen, Mathew R. Schwaller, William Baccus, Jessica D. Lundquist, Clifford F. Mass, Bart Nijssen, Steven A. Rutledge, David R. Hudak, Simone Tanelli, Gerald G. Mace, Michael R. Poellot, Dennis P. Lettenmaier, Joseph P. Zagrodnik, Angela K. Rowe, Jennifer C. DeHart, Luke E. Madaus, Hannah C. Barnes, and V. Chandrasekar

performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Airborne lidar imagery was obtained by the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory Airborne Snow Observatory, funded by NASA’s Terrestrial Hydrology Program. We especially thank Vaisala Inc., who took quick action to replace a stolen radiosonde unit just prior to the start of OLYMPEX. REFERENCES Chapman , D. , and K. A. Browning , 1997 : Radar observations of

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