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Philip T. Bergmaier and Bart Geerts

of airborne radar and lidar observations of a New York Finger Lakes LE snow event. The observations are unique in the sense that airborne measurements of any kind within LE cloud bands have generally been obtained from bands over the much larger Great Lakes, primarily Lake Michigan (e.g., Passarelli and Braham 1981 ; Kelly 1982 , 1984 ; Braham 1990 ; Chang and Braham 1991 ; Braham et al. 1992 ; Braham and Dungey 1995 ; Kristovich et al. 2003 ; Schroeder et al. 2006 ; Yang and Geerts 2006

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David A. R. Kristovich, Richard D. Clark, Jeffrey Frame, Bart Geerts, Kevin R. Knupp, Karen A. Kosiba, Neil F. Laird, Nicholas D. Metz, Justin R. Minder, Todd D. Sikora, W. James Steenburgh, Scott M. Steiger, Joshua Wurman, and George S. Young

(IOPs) to gain an unprecedented dataset on LeSs ( Table 1 ). Many of the common locations for the surface-based facilities during IOPs are shown in Fig. 1a ; aircraft flight patterns are illustrated in Figs. 1b–d . Observations collected by these facilities, as well as those taken operationally in the United States and Canada, have been integrated, quality controlled, and archived at the UCAR Earth Observing Laboratory ( www.eol.ucar.edu/field_projects/owles ). Table 1. Major observational

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David A. R. Kristovich, Luke Bard, Leslie Stoecker, and Bart Geerts

reflectivity and vertical movement of the precipitation directly above and below the aircraft ( Wang et al. 2012 ). The Wyoming Cloud Lidar (WCL) also collected data that were analyzed with the University of Wyoming software. Analysis of in situ observations was conducted using MATLAB, version 9.0.0.341360 (number R2016a), and Microsoft, Inc., Excel (version 2016). All in situ and remote sensing observations were corrected for known errors by the University of Wyoming and the National Center for

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Dan Welsh, Bart Geerts, Xiaoqin Jing, Philip T. Bergmaier, Justin R. Minder, W. James Steenburgh, and Leah S. Campbell

. 2. Terrain map near eastern Lake Ontario including the UWKA flight track on 11 Dec 2013, and instrument sites. Tracks defined by the meridional flight legs are identified, along with the number of passes over each track. Solid flight track sections are within 15 km of MRR sites. The color code identifying specific tracks will be used later in the paper. Table 1. Snow water equivalent (SWE) accumulation as observed by NCEP stage IV, automated observations, and manual measurements at sites inland

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Scott M. Steiger, Tyler Kranz, and Theodore W. Letcher

these flashes were of negative polarity and ceased to occur once the storm moved over Lake Michigan even though the lake enhanced the precipitation. Warner et al. (2014) provide evidence that these flashes were mostly SIUL flashes associated with a variety of anthropogenic structures. The purpose of this paper is to characterize the mesoscale and microphysical aspects of lake-effect thundersnow events using the high-resolution OWLeS observations. Lightning was reported (by humans and/or automated

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