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Tobias Selz, Lucas Fischer, and George C. Craig

, however, the values differ significantly, showing a much smaller intermittency and higher H and exponents in the observational data. Partly these differences can be explained by observational limitations and will be discussed in the following section. b. Sensitivity to observational limitations In this section, we use the numerical simulation as a surrogate data source to address the impact of three intrinsic limitations of lidar observations on the structure function analysis: the domain size

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Peter Vogel, Peter Knippertz, Andreas H. Fink, Andreas Schlueter, and Tilmann Gneiting

). Conventional observations such as surface stations and weather balloons are scarce at low latitudes, particularly over the vast tropical oceans. Consequently, the observing system is dominated by satellite data, which are heavily skewed toward measuring atmospheric mass variables rather than wind (e.g., Baker et al. 2014 ). However, data denial experiments for periods with a much enhanced radiosonde network during field campaigns over West Africa have shown a relatively small impact on model performance

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Andreas Schäfler, George Craig, Heini Wernli, Philippe Arbogast, James D. Doyle, Ron McTaggart-Cowan, John Methven, Gwendal Rivière, Felix Ament, Maxi Boettcher, Martina Bramberger, Quitterie Cazenave, Richard Cotton, Susanne Crewell, Julien Delanoë, Andreas Dörnbrack, André Ehrlich, Florian Ewald, Andreas Fix, Christian M. Grams, Suzanne L. Gray, Hans Grob, Silke Groß, Martin Hagen, Ben Harvey, Lutz Hirsch, Marek Jacob, Tobias Kölling, Heike Konow, Christian Lemmerz, Oliver Lux, Linus Magnusson, Bernhard Mayer, Mario Mech, Richard Moore, Jacques Pelon, Julian Quinting, Stephan Rahm, Markus Rapp, Marc Rautenhaus, Oliver Reitebuch, Carolyn A. Reynolds, Harald Sodemann, Thomas Spengler, Geraint Vaughan, Manfred Wendisch, Martin Wirth, Benjamin Witschas, Kevin Wolf, and Tobias Zinner

payload (see the “Active remote sensing observations for future satellite missions Aeolus and EarthCARE” sidebar and Table 2 ) allow HALO to fly above the main commercial aircraft routes and to probe features of interest from above. The two Falcon aircraft, with a maximum range of 3,000 km, a maximum endurance of about 4 h, and a ceiling up to 12 km, aimed to observe the approaching cyclones and evolving jet streams close to Iceland. The DLR Falcon was equipped with two wind lidar systems and the

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Stephan Rasp, Tobias Selz, and George C. Craig

central Europe . J. Geophys. Res. , 108 , 4224 , doi: 10.1029/2002JD002521 . Rodwell , M. J. , and Coauthors , 2013 : Characteristics of occasional poor medium-range weather forecasts for Europe . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 94 , 1393 – 1405 , doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00099.1 . Schäfler , A. , A. Dörnbrack , H. Wernli , C. Kiemle , and S. Pfahl , 2011 : Airborne lidar observations in the inflow region of a warm conveyor belt . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 137 , 1257 – 1272

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