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Alfred J. Kalyanapu, A. K. M. Azad Hossain, Jinwoo Kim, Wondmagegn Yigzaw, Faisal Hossain, and C. K. Shum

calibration process highlighted the topographic representation issues associated with NED DEM and topographic lidar-derived DEMs. The model was calibrated by using observed flood stage and by using spatial inundation extent–derived SAR and Landsat satellite observations. Lidar-derived DEM adjusted by raising levees by 7 m near the Rancho Cardova region and the upstream section of American River deepened by 4 m, which resulted in a closer match of simulated flood depths and flood extent with the observed

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Brandon L. Parkes, Hannah L. Cloke, Florian Pappenberger, Jeff Neal, and David Demeritt

than the actual water level because of capillary action. Fewtrell et al. ( Fewtrell et al. 2011 ) went further with their analysis, comparing wrack and water marks not only against each other but also with the peak water height recorded by a nearby river gauge. They suggested the mean difference between proximate observations to be 0.1 m, which is within the accuracy of the DEM, although they did find greater average differences when comparing wrack marks to water marks ( Fewtrell et al. 2011

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