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Howard B. Bluestein, Jana B. Houser, Michael M. French, Jeffrey C. Snyder, George D. Emmitt, Ivan PopStefanija, Chad Baldi, and Robert T. Bluth

ground-based wind observations in the boundary layer in and near supercells (mostly in the inflow region and just behind the rear-flank gust front), some tornadic, from a very high-spatial resolution, mobile, pulsed Doppler lidar and collocated, mobile, phased-array, X-band Doppler radar data ( Bluestein et al. 2010 ); and 2) to make a case for the use of the lidar for probing the boundary layer of tornadoes. The data were collected during the second year of the Second Verification of the Origins of

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Carmen Cordoba-Jabonero, Manuel Gil, Margarita Yela, Marion Maturilli, and Roland Neuber

small, easily handled aerosol lidar from the new generation of micropulse lidars [MPL version 4 (MPL-4), Sigma Space Corporation] at Belgrano Station, Antarctica (78°S, 34°W). Belgrano remains well inside the vortex during wintertime ( Parrondo et al. 2007 ) providing an excellent location for PSC observations. This new equipment will complete the Antarctic program, which INTA is performing continuously from 1994 for stratospheric ozone monitoring and research. Older versions than MPL-4 are already

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Ronny Engelmann, Ulla Wandinger, Albert Ansmann, Detlef Müller, Egidijus Žeromskis, Dietrich Althausen, and Birgit Wehner

of flux parameterizations in mesoscale and general circulation models. Such observations can only be done with remote sensing instruments that provide the parameters of interest with high accuracy (<5%–10%) and with a spatial resolution of the order of 50 m and a temporal resolution of a few seconds. Remote measurements of turbulent fluxes in the planetary boundary layer were first shown by Senff et al. (1994) . A water vapor differential absorption lidar (DIAL) was combined with a radar radio

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Julia W. Fiedler, Lauren Kim, Robert L. Grenzeback, Adam P. Young, and Mark A. Merrifield

Guza 1984 ; Holland et al. 1995 ) and buried pressure sensors, which can also measure nearshore waves (e.g., Raubenheimer et al. 1998 ). These are costly to maintain and not easily moved once deployed. Remote observations of nearshore processes for model validation have historically been based on video techniques (e.g., Holman et al. 2013 ), with the more recent addition of lidar and radar ( Brodie et al. 2015 ; Blenkinsopp et al. 2010 ; Almeida et al. 2013 ; Turner et al. 2016b ; Vousdoukas

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Natalie Midzak, John E. Yorks, Jianglong Zhang, Bastiaan van Diedenhoven, Sarah Woods, and Matthew McGill

derived from airborne polarimeter observations. However, only broad plate-like or column-like categories can be derived using polarimeter observations alone. Noel et al. (2004) found lidar depolarization ratio to be sensitive to modeled aspect ratio which allowed for a coarse classification of habit types. Still only broad ice crystal categories including plates or spheroids, irregulars and columns were derived from the study. Also, distinguishing small from large ice crystals is a challenging task

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H. Luce, T. Takai, T. Nakamura, M. Yamamoto, and S. Fukao

acquisition time and the radar resolution volume. Its range resolution (typically 150 m or more) is a limitation because the humidity (and temperature) gradients are frequently shallower. Obviously, colocalized and continuous observations of humidity would more properly help to validate the radar technique approach. This can be achieved from colocalized Raman lidar observations ( Imura et al. 2007 ). Lidar observations can be performed continuously during favorable conditions (clear nights). Humidity is

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Stuart A. Young, Mark A. Vaughan, Ralph E. Kuehn, and David M. Winker

1. Introduction The Cloud–Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations ( CALIPSO ) satellite began acquiring scientific data in mid-June 2006. CALIPSO carries three coaligned, nadir-viewing instruments: a three-channel elastic-backscatter lidar, an imaging infrared radiometer, and a wide-field camera. An overview of the CALIPSO mission, science objectives, and instruments is presented in Winker et al. (2010) . The CALIPSO lidar [Cloud–Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal

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Michael Bennett, Simon Christie, Angus Graham, and David Raper

field trials at Heathrow and Manchester airports using a rapid-scanning lidar in conjunction with various other observations. This paper describes the field work undertaken and how we have elaborated the hardware and software of the lidar system so that it should be capable of monitoring aviation emissions. We illustrate this capability with images of dispersing aircraft plumes under a range of operational modes. Subsequent papers ( Bennett and Christie 2010 ; A. Graham et al. 2010, unpublished

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Bianca Adler, Olga Kiseleva, Norbert Kalthoff, and Andreas Wieser

correlated), and the spectral peak wavelength λ m (as the size of the eddies with the most energy). Reliable measurement of these parameters is crucial for the understanding of the CBL structure and evolution. Variance profiles can be derived from aircraft observations using spatial averages (e.g., Lenschow and Stephens 1980 ; Lenschow 1986 ; Young 1988 ; Grunwald et al. 1998 ) and from tower or wind lidar measurements using temporal averages (e.g., Neff 1990 ; Grund et al. 2001 ; Emeis 2011

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A. Protat, J. Delanoë, E. J. O’Connor, and T. S. L’Ecuyer

troposphere and preferential regions of high cloud occurrence, tropical ice clouds are of particular importance, owing to their extensive horizontal and vertical coverage and long lifetime (e.g., Sassen et al. 2008 ). Because of difficulties in estimating the large-scale radiative effect of these clouds, even the sign of the net radiative effect of these tropical ice clouds remains uncertain. Recent cloud radar and lidar observations collected on a global scale as part of the A-train mission ( Stephens

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