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Kuo-Nan Liou

radiative terms. On the experimental side,Platt and Gambling (1971) carried out combined rubylidar and 10 t~m window observations and found thatthe cirrus emissivity varies considerably over the periodof measurement. In follow-up works, Platt (1973, 1975)reported more comprehensive observations of the cirrusemissivity in the 10 t~m window and gave a value of'-,0.38. Recently, Platt et al. (1980) and Platt and Dilley(1981), based on satellite and lidar observations, estimated the cirrus emissivity and

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Tammy M. Weckwerth and David B. Parsons

, and R. M. Hardesty , 1990 : Details of colliding thunderstorm outflows as observed by Doppler lidar. J. Atmos. Sci , 47 , 1081 – 1098 . Jorgensen , D. P. , and T. M. Weckwerth , 2003 : Forcing and organization of convective systems. Radar and Atmospheric Science: A Collection of Essays in Honor of David Atlas , R. M. Wakimoto and R. C. Srivastava, Eds., Amer. Meteor. Soc., 75–104 . Karan , H. , and K. Knupp , 2006 : Mobile Integrated Profiler System (MIPS) observations of

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Clark Evans, Kimberly M. Wood, Sim D. Aberson, Heather M. Archambault, Shawn M. Milrad, Lance F. Bosart, Kristen L. Corbosiero, Christopher A. Davis, João R. Dias Pinto, James Doyle, Chris Fogarty, Thomas J. Galarneau Jr., Christian M. Grams, Kyle S. Griffin, John Gyakum, Robert E. Hart, Naoko Kitabatake, Hilke S. Lentink, Ron McTaggart-Cowan, William Perrie, Julian F. D. Quinting, Carolyn A. Reynolds, Michael Riemer, Elizabeth A. Ritchie, Yujuan Sun, and Fuqing Zhang

positive impact upon the model first-guess field from assimilating targeted observations earlier in the TC life cycle ( Weissmann et al. 2011 ). Targeted lidar-derived water vapor observations improved analysis quality but had a negligible mean impact on forecast quality for the eight T-PARC missions considered by Harnisch et al. (2011) . The effects of assimilating Doppler wind lidar observations collected during T-PARC varied, as they had a positive impact at all lead times on TC track and large

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Robert Wood

in urgent need of future exploration. Challenges for future observations of stratocumulus include a need for more and better observations of midlatitude and high-latitude stratocumulus (particularly over the remote oceans, but also over land). New remote sensing developments, from aircraft, the surface, and from space, are providing new approaches to stratocumulus observation. Observation of turbulence structure in STBLs remains quite poor and new Doppler radar and lidar measurements from the

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