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Alfonso Senatore, Giuseppe Mendicino, Hans Richard Knoche, and Harald Kunstmann

1. Introduction Observations show that sea surface temperatures (SSTs) often play a major role in midlatitude extreme precipitation events (e.g., caused by atmospheric rivers; Neiman et al. 2013 ). This is especially true in areas such as the Mediterranean ( Rebora et al. 2013 ), where sea–atmosphere interactions are influenced by complex coastal orography, leading to local meteorological processes whose complexity is often not fully interpreted by models ( Senatore et al. 2011 ). The impact

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Alejandro Hermoso, Victor Homar, and Arnau Amengual

.g., Ramis et al. 1994 ; Doswell et al. 1998 ; Homar et al. 2002 ; Martín et al. 2007 ; Michaelides et al. 2018 ). The relatively warm Mediterranean Sea acts as a heat and moisture source during late summer and early autumn. Indeed, the maximum climatological frequency of flash flood producing HPEs occurs in autumn (e.g., Llasat et al. 2010 ). The combination of this factor with the presence of cold midlevel disturbances and maritime warm and moist air at low levels generates convective instability

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Francisco Criado-Aldeanueva, F. Javier Soto-Navarro, and Jesús García-Lafuente

1. Introduction The Mediterranean Sea ( Fig. 1 ), a marginal basin located across a dynamic border that separates two different climatic regions (Europe and North Africa), extends over 3000 km in longitude and over 1500 km in latitude with an area of 2.5 × 10 12 m 2 , and it connects with the Atlantic Ocean through the Strait of Gibraltar and with the Black Sea through the Turkish Bosphorus and Dardanelles Straits. Semi-enclosed basins such as the Mediterranean are suitable for the

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Sante Laviola, Agata Moscatello, Mario Marcello Miglietta, Elsa Cattani, and Vincenzo Levizzani

Mediterranean basin. The Alps are responsible for such deflections for the Northern Atlantic systems and the Atlas Mountains for the southern ones. These systems transit over the warm Mediterranean and western Europe, and find favorable conditions for cyclogenesis over the Western Mediterranean ( Buzzi and Tibaldi 1978 ). Also, Mediterranean disturbances frequently develop as a consequence of the interaction of an unusually deep upper-tropospheric trough and cold air with the relative warmth of the sea

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Silvio Davolio, Francesco Silvestro, and Thomas Gastaldo

inland with heavy and persistent rainfall that became devastating floods in a few hours in small watersheds. In general, the precipitation systems affecting Liguria often originate over the Mediterranean Sea, and the interaction with the orography may enhance rainfall intensity. These are usually characterized by short durations (12–36 h) and high intensities ( Deidda et al. 1999 ; Boni et al. 2007 ). The polarimetric C-band radar that covers the region (location in Fig. 1b ) is therefore a

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William Amponsah, Lorenzo Marchi, Davide Zoccatelli, Giorgio Boni, Marco Cavalli, Francesco Comiti, Stefano Crema, Ana Lucía, Francesco Marra, and Marco Borga

, uncertainty assessment, and comparison with rainfall–runoff model results. 3. The 25 October 2011 flash flood in the Magra River basin The Magra River basin ( Fig. 2 ) is located in central-northern Italy, at the border between the Tuscany and Liguria regions, with highest elevation at 1900 m MSL, and drains to the Ligurian Sea. The total drainage area of the study basin is 1717 km 2 , of which the Vara River (the major tributary of the Magra River) drains 605 km 2 . The climate is Mediterranean with dry

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Roberto Corona, Nicola Montaldo, and John D. Albertson

, this strong seasonality is mainly controlled by atmospheric circulation patterns, most notably a strong subtropical high pressure cell that persists in the summer months, and its persistence is essential for future water resources sustainability, while the cold/wet season is affected by the arrival of midlatitude westerlies ( Rojas et al. 2013 ). In addition to the areas in and surrounding the Mediterranean Sea, this type of climate prevails in parts of western North America, South America, Western

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Suleiman Mostamandi, Evgeniya Predybaylo, Sergey Osipov, Olga Zolina, Sergey Gulev, Sagar Parajuli, and Georgiy Stenchikov

of the Arabian Peninsula. RSCZ and ML show the locations of the Red Sea convergence zone in winter and Mediterranean low pressure system, respectively. Shading shows the TRMM annual mean precipitation (mm yr −1 ) averaged over 2000–10. The Red Sea is losing approximately 0.9 Tt of water annually to evaporation. This is equivalent to 7.6% of the mass of total atmospheric water vapor ( Morcos 1970 ; Nassir 2012 ; Trenberth and Smith 2005 ). In the Red Sea coastal plains, sea breezes transport

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Xiaoyang Li, Ryuichi Kawamura, Atsuko Sugimoto, and Kei Yoshimura

and identified the dominant source of precipitation induced by winter monsoons and extratropical cyclones as the Sea of Japan and the Pacific Ocean, respectively. The aim of this study is to clarify the moisture sources and to investigate the corresponding moisture transport processes of explosive extratropical cyclones during their development. For that purpose, a regional spectral model (RSM) incorporating water vapor tracers and stable water isotopes was used to simulate an explosive cyclone

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Caroline M. Wainwright, Emily Black, and Richard P. Allan

et al. (2014) report that the response in wet and dry spell lengths is more pronounced and spatially consistent over the tropics than the extratropics. Polade et al. (2014) also identified an increasing dry day frequency, in particular over northern South America, Central America, southern Africa, and the Mediterranean—regions also identified by Pascale et al. (2016) as showing increases in the number of dry days. While Giorgi et al. (2014) and Giorgi et al. (2019) examined the mean wet

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