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Peter J. Marinescu, Susan C. van den Heever, Max Heikenfeld, Andrew I. Barrett, Christian Barthlott, Corinna Hoose, Jiwen Fan, Ann M. Fridlind, Toshi Matsui, Annette K. Miltenberger, Philip Stier, Benoit Vie, Bethan A. White, and Yuwei Zhang

CCN concentrations is sensitive to boundary layer moisture (e.g., Fan et al. 2007 ), convective available potential energy (CAPE; Lee et al. 2008 ; Storer et al. 2010 ), and wind shear ( Lee et al. 2008 ; Fan et al. 2009 ). Case study simulations, which often provide more realism than idealized simulations, have also been used to assess the impacts of environmental parameters. For example, mesoscale convective systems in environments with different relative humidity ( Khain et al. 2005 ; Fan

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Stacey Kawecki, Geoffrey M. Henebry, and Allison L. Steiner

any one of three features: 1) hail equal to or exceeding 1.0 in. (2.54 cm) in diameter, 2) wind speeds exceeding 58 mi h −1 (26 m s −1 ), or 3) a tornado. For each of these three cases, the atmospheric environment must be highly unstable with large amounts of convective available potential energy (CAPE) and wind shear values of 15–20 m s −1 over a depth of 0–6 km ( Thompson et al. 2003 ). One type of system that often results in severe weather is the mesoscale convective system (MCS) ( Maddox

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Yan Yang, Jiwen Fan, L. Ruby Leung, Chun Zhao, Zhanqing Li, and Daniel Rosenfeld

mechanisms contributing to the suppression of precipitation that was concluded unanimously by those observational studies. The modeling study is carried out on the convection-permitting scale over a large regional domain in central China by real-case simulations with coupled chemistry and aerosols to explore the major mechanisms responsible for the reduced precipitation over the Mt. Hua area. 2. Methods Model simulations are conducted using the improved Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model with

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Baolin Jiang, Bo Huang, Wenshi Lin, and Suishan Xu

National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale and Microscale Meteorology Division ( ), which is responsible for the Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Chemistry. The National Centers for Environmental Prediction Final global tropospheric analysis dataset, 0.5° × 0.5° Reanalysis of the Tropospheric chemical composition, and 1° × 1° Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research used in this study are available at

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Jiwen Fan, Yuan Wang, Daniel Rosenfeld, and Xiaohong Liu

.e., nearly continuous stratocumulus cloud deck). The closed cells are composed of numerous small droplets and usually precipitate lightly if at all. Adding aerosols to closed cells further suppresses the precipitation by further decreasing droplet size and enhancing entrainment due to strong evaporation ( Ackerman et al. 2004 ). Thus, the direction and magnitude of the precipitation response are strongly influenced by cloud properties and mesoscale stratocumulus cloud regime ( Christensen and Stephens

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Tianmeng Chen, Jianping Guo, Zhanqing Li, Chuanfeng Zhao, Huan Liu, Maureen Cribb, Fu Wang, and Jing He

mesoscale convective systems and are more typically associated with frontal systems (warm fronts) in the midlatitudes ( Houze 1993 ; Wolde and Vali 2002 ). Observational and modeling studies have shown that the aerosol-induced effects on DCCs have great implications for weather and climate systems ( Rosenfeld et al. 2008 ; Koren et al. 2010a , b ; Fan et al. 2013 ). These three types of cloud have low cloud bases and are possibly associated with relatively strong uplifting of air. Since they are more

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Yun Lin, Yuan Wang, Bowen Pan, Jiaxi Hu, Yangang Liu, and Renyi Zhang

. During and after the cold front passage at the SGP site, weakly precipitating stratus developed at 2100 LST 26 May and persisted throughout 27 May, with relatively thick cloud physical and optical depths. b. Model configuration A Weather Research and Forecasting Model, version 3.1.1, with an aerosol-aware two-moment bulk microphysics scheme developed by Li et al. (2008b) at Texas A&M University (TAMU-WRF) is employed in this study. TAMU-WRF has been successfully used for investigations of AME on

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Luke B. Hande, C. Hoose, and C. Barthlott

concentrations are mostly lower than those suggested by the Meyers et al. (1992) parameterization, except when the aerosol size becomes large. 3. Application in a simulation of a deep convective cloud a. Model description The nonhydrostatic regional-weather-forecasting Consortium for Small-Scale Modeling (COSMO) Model, version 5.01 ( Schättler et al. 2008 ), was run at high resolutions capable of resolving energy-containing turbulence ( Barthlott and Hoose 2015 ). To evaluate the above parameterization and

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Wojciech W. Grabowski and Hugh Morrison

summertime southern Great Plains (SGP)—using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model with bin microphysics and contrasted simulations specifying pristine and polluted conditions. The impact on the surface rain accumulation was relatively small: the accumulation was a few percent larger in the polluted case for the TWP and SEC simulations and a few percent smaller (larger) for the polluted case for the initial 20 days (final 10 days) for the SGP site. However, the polluted minus pristine difference was

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Eyal Ilotoviz, Alexander P. Khain, Nir Benmoshe, Vaughan T. J. Phillips, and Alexander V. Ryzhkov

. Pruppacher , 1984 : A wind tunnel and theoretical study of the melting behavior of atmospheric ice particles. II: A theoretical study for frozen drops of radius < 500 . J. Atmos. Sci. , 41 , 374 – 380 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(1984)041<0374:AWTATS>2.0.CO;2 . Reisner , J. , R. M. Rasmussen , and R. T. Bruintjes , 1998 : Explicit forecasting of supercooled liquid water in winter storms using the MM5 mesoscale model . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 124 , 1071 – 1107 , doi: 10.1002/qj

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