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Robert Conrick, Clifford F. Mass, and Qi Zhong

idealized or dry models. Large-eddy simulation (LES) experiments have investigated KH instability in a variety of real-world cases, including in a mesoscale convective system (MCS) over southern England ( Browning et al. 2012 ), within a hurricane boundary layer ( Nakanishi and Niino 2012 ; Na et al. 2014 ), during frontogenesis ( Samelson and Skyllingstad 2016 ), and for stratified flow over terrain ( Sauer et al. 2016 ). Recent studies have used full-physics NWP models to simulate KH waves. Mahalov

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Robert Conrick and Clifford F. Mass

1. Introduction The evaluation of mesoscale weather prediction models over coastal mountains is of substantial importance because orographically forced coastal precipitation is critical for the water resources that serve many highly populated areas ( Barros 2013 ). The properties of coastal precipitation systems depend on the upstream environment over the ocean, where collecting observations is difficult ( Stoelinga et al. 2013 ). As a result, satellite-derived measurements are often the sole

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Annareli Morales, Hugh Morrison, and Derek J. Posselt

are implemented in weather forecast models to represent the development of clouds and precipitation. Simulated orographic precipitation for both AR and non-AR events has been found to be sensitive to the choice of microphysics scheme ( Jankov et al. 2007 , 2009 ; Liu et al. 2011 ). Sensitivity studies exploring the effects of microphysical parameters on orographic precipitation show changes in these parameters can impact cloud and precipitation development. Colle and Mass (2000) found lower

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Joseph P. Zagrodnik, Lynn A. McMurdie, and Robert A. Houze Jr.

warm advection and rising melting levels. The frontal sector is a broad, elongated cloud shield within which a cold or occluded front’s circulation generates banded precipitation. Sometimes the cold front is sharp, but more often over the ocean the temperature change in the cold-frontal zone is weak. Within these storm sectors are embedded rainbands and other mesoscale and convective elements of enhanced precipitation. The broad, moist warm sector located ahead of the cold-frontal zone and to the

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Joseph P. Zagrodnik, Lynn A. McMurdie, Robert A. Houze Jr., and Simone Tanelli

-coastal waters with embedded colder cloud tops likely associated with mesoscale elements ( Houze et al. 1976 ; Hobbs 1978 ; Matejka et al. 1980 ). The sounding-derived parameters for each case in Table 3 show that the prefrontal sectors all had low-level flow veering from southeasterly at 925 hPa to southwesterly at 700 hPa and high static stability in the 950–850-hPa layer, a consequence of warm advection associated with the approaching warm or occluded front. The hodographs in Fig. 4 and the moist

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