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Jake P. Mulholland, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Robert J. Trapp, and John M. Peters

observations of the early evolution of bow echoes . Wea. Forecasting , 19 , 727 – 734 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0434(2004)019<0727:ROOTEE>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0434(2004)019<0727:ROOTEE>2.0.CO;2 Laing , A. G. , and J. M. Fritsch , 1997 : The global population of mesoscale convective complexes . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 123 , 389 – 405 , https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.49712353807 . 10.1002/qj.49712353807 Letkewicz , C. E. , and M. D. Parker , 2011 : Impact of environmental

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Stephen W. Nesbitt, Paola V. Salio, Eldo Ávila, Phillip Bitzer, Lawrence Carey, V. Chandrasekar, Wiebke Deierling, Francina Dominguez, Maria Eugenia Dillon, C. Marcelo Garcia, David Gochis, Steven Goodman, Deanna A. Hence, Karen A. Kosiba, Matthew R. Kumjian, Timothy Lang, Lorena Medina Luna, James Marquis, Robert Marshall, Lynn A. McMurdie, Ernani de Lima Nascimento, Kristen L. Rasmussen, Rita Roberts, Angela K. Rowe, Juan José Ruiz, Eliah F.M.T. São Sabbas, A. Celeste Saulo, Russ S. Schumacher, Yanina Garcia Skabar, Luiz Augusto Toledo Machado, Robert J. Trapp, Adam C. Varble, James Wilson, Joshua Wurman, Edward J. Zipser, Ivan Arias, Hernán Bechis, and Maxwell A. Grover

this end, University of Illinois (UI), CSU, Universidad de Buenos Aires (UBA), and SMN provided convection-permitting regional and global variable resolution runs over the RELAMPAGO region to supplement global numerical guidance. SMN and Centro de Investigaciones del Mar y la Atmósfera (UBA) implemented a mesoscale ensemble-based data assimilation and forecast system on NCAR’s Cheyenne supercomputer, which fostered the operational implementation of this system at SMN. Since briefings used for

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James N. Marquis, Adam C. Varble, Paul Robinson, T. Connor Nelson, and Katja Friedrich

. This work was aided by an undergraduate research assistant at the University of Colorado, Thomas Jarman. Data availability statement Data utilized are available on NCAR’s Earth Observing Laboratory and ARM’s Data Discovery catalogs. REFERENCES Alexander , L. S. , D. M. Sills , and P. A. Taylor , 2018 : Initiation of convective storms at low-level mesoscale boundaries in southwestern Ontario . Wea. Forecasting , 33 , 583 – 598 , https://doi.org/10.1175/WAF-D-17-0086.1 . 10.1175/WAF-D-17

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Robert J. Trapp, Karen A. Kosiba, James N. Marquis, Matthew R. Kumjian, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Joshua Wurman, Paola Salio, Maxwell A. Grover, Paul Robinson, and Deanna A. Hence

representative of an average of the lowest 100-hPa of the atmosphere from each sounding are shown with dotted lines. One of the forecast uncertainties during IOP4 was the geographical location and timing of the initiation of deep convection, especially given the strength of the capping inversion and associated convective inhibition (CIN) present in the 1200 UTC soundings ( Fig. 3 ). Parcel lifting was expected in association with horizontal moisture convergence along an east–west-oriented mesoscale boundary

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Adam C. Varble, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Paola Salio, Joseph C. Hardin, Nitin Bharadwaj, Paloma Borque, Paul J. DeMott, Zhe Feng, Thomas C. J. Hill, James N. Marquis, Alyssa Matthews, Fan Mei, Rusen Öktem, Vagner Castro, Lexie Goldberger, Alexis Hunzinger, Kevin R. Barry, Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Greg M. McFarquhar, Lynn A. McMurdie, Mikhail Pekour, Heath Powers, David M. Romps, Celeste Saulo, Beat Schmid, Jason M. Tomlinson, Susan C. van den Heever, Alla Zelenyuk, Zhixiao Zhang, and Edward J. Zipser

used global numerical weather prediction and regional convection-allowing model guidance that was run every 6–12 h by SMN, the University of Illinois, and Colorado State University (CSU). When deep convection was forecasted, AMF1 radiosonde launch frequency was increased from 4- to 3-hourly between 0900 and 2100 LT. Additional sondes were also occasionally launched from the Villa Dolores site. In addition, Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-16 ( GOES-16 ) mesoscale domain sectors

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Jake P. Mulholland, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Robert J. Trapp, Kristen L. Rasmussen, and Paola V. Salio

.1002/2015RG000488 . 10.1002/2015RG000488 Johns , R. H. , and C. A. Doswell , 1992 : Severe local storms forecasting . Wea. Forecasting , 7 , 588 – 612 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0434(1992)007<0588:SLSF>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0434(1992)007<0588:SLSF>2.0.CO;2 Johnson , R. H. , and B. E. Mapes , 2001 : Mesoscale processes and severe convective weather. Severe Convective Storms , Meteor. Monogr. , No. 50, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 71–122, https://doi.org/10.1175/0065-9401-28.50.71 . 10

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Jake P. Mulholland, Stephen W. Nesbitt, and Robert J. Trapp

convection-allowing NWP . Wea. Forecasting , 23 , 931 – 952 , https://doi.org/10.1175/WAF2007106.1 . 10.1175/WAF2007106.1 Klimowski , B. A. , M. R. Hjelmfelt , and M. J. Bunkers , 2004 : Radar observations of the early evolution of bow echoes . Wea. Forecasting , 19 , 727 – 734 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0434(2004)019<0727:ROOTEE>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0434(2004)019<0727:ROOTEE>2.0.CO;2 Laing , A. G. , and J. M. Fritsch , 1997 : The global population of mesoscale convective

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Kristen L. Rasmussen, Melissa A. Burt, Angela Rowe, Rebecca Haacker, Deanna Hence, Lorena Medina Luna, Stephen W. Nesbitt, and Julie Maertens

understanding the complex communications and decision-making from experienced PIs such that this group can become future leaders in this field. Professional networking with top scientists in atmospheric science that can provide future employment and collaboration opportunities. Increase students’ knowledge of cloud physics, mesoscale dynamics, convective weather forecasting, and mountain meteorology. Guide students to complete a student-led project during the ASI that may include observations from their

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Zachary S. Bruick, Kristen L. Rasmussen, and Daniel J. Cecil

the understanding of how, why, and when hailstorms form and what characteristics may differentiate them from convection that does not produce hail. Through this analysis, a more comprehensive understanding of the climatology of hail and hail-producing environments will be presented. The results from this study will provide context for the results of the Remote Sensing of Electrification, Lightning, and Mesoscale/Microscale Processes with Adaptive Ground Observations (RELAMPAGO) field campaign (1

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Matthew R. Kumjian, Rachel Gutierrez, Joshua S. Soderholm, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Paula Maldonado, Lorena Medina Luna, James Marquis, Kevin A. Bowley, Milagros Alvarez Imaz, and Paola Salio

tornadic supercell in El Reno, Oklahoma, Seimon et al. (2016) claim a storm chaser video captured a hailstone that may have been >20 cm in maximum diameter; however, there was no further discussion or analysis. T able 1. Proposed hail size naming convention, based on previous usage and operational terminology. None of the aforementioned studies of giant or gargantuan hail focused on observed storm properties or environments. In contrast, Pojorlie et al. (2013) documented the synoptic and mesoscale

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